Programming 1
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Programming 1. Overview of C++ Language. Objectives. A typical C++ program-development environment. Study variables How to declare How to use Become familiar with the basic components of a C++ program, including identifiers. Typical C++ Development Environment.

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Programming 1

Programming 1

Overview of C++ Language


Objectives

Objectives

  • A typical C++ program-development environment.

  • Study variables

    • How to declare

    • How to use

  • Become familiar with the basic components of a C++ program, including identifiers


Typical c development environment

Typical C++ Development Environment

  • C++ systemsgenerally consist of three parts: a program development environment, the language and the C++ Standard Library.

  • C++ programs typically go through six phases: edit, preprocess, compile, link, load and execute.


Typical c development environment cont

Typical C++ Development Environment (Cont.)

  • Phase 1 consists of editing a file with an editor program, normally known simply as an editor.

    • Type a C++ program (source code) using the editor.

    • Make any necessary corrections.

    • Save the program.

    • C++ source code filenames often end with the .cpp, .cxx, .cc or .C extensions (note that C is in uppercase) which indicate that a file contains C++ source code.


Typical c development environment cont1

Typical C++ Development Environment (Cont.)

  • Linux editors: vi and emacs.

  • C++ software packages for Microsoft Windows such as Microsoft Visual C++ (microsoft.com/express) have editors integrated into the programming environment.

  • You can also use a simple text editor, such as Notepad in Windows, to write your C++ code.

  • integrated development environments (IDEs)

    • Provide tools that support the software-development process, including editors for writing and editing programs and debuggers for locating logic errors-errors that cause programs to execute incorrectly.


Typical c development environment cont2

Typical C++ Development Environment (Cont.)

  • Popular IDEs

    • Microsoft® Visual Studio 2010 Express Edition

    • Dev C++

    • NetBeans

    • Eclipse

    • CodeLite


Typical c development environment cont3

Typical C++ Development Environment (Cont.)

  • In phase 2, you give the command to compile the program.

    • A preprocessor program executes automatically before the compiler’s translation phase begins (so we call preprocessing Phase 2 and compiling Phase 3).

    • The C++ preprocessor obeys commands called preprocessor directives, which indicate that certain manipulations are to be performed on the program before compilation.

    • These manipulations usually include other text files to be compiled, and perform various text replacements.

    • The most common preprocessor directives are discussed in the early chapters; a detailed discussion of preprocessor features appears in Appendix E, Preprocessor.


Typical c development environment cont4

Typical C++ Development Environment (Cont.)

  • In Phase 3, the compiler translates the C++ program into machine-language code-also referred to as object code.


Typical c development environment cont5

Typical C++ Development Environment (Cont.)

  • Phase 4 is called linking.

    • The object code produced by the C++ compiler typically contains “holes” due to these missing parts.

    • A linker links the object code with the code for the missing functions to produce an executable program.

    • If the program compiles and links correctly, an executable image is produced.


Typical c development environment cont6

Typical C++ Development Environment (Cont.)

  • Phase 5 is called loading.

    • Before a program can be executed, it must first be placed in memory.

    • This is done by the loader, which takes the executable image from disk and transfers it to memory.

    • Additional components from shared libraries that support the program are also loaded.


Typical c development environment cont7

Typical C++ Development Environment (Cont.)

  • Phase 6: Execution

    • Finally, the computer, under the control of its CPU, executes the program one instruction at a time.

    • Some modern computer architectures can execute several instructions in parallel.


Typical c development environment cont8

Typical C++ Development Environment (Cont.)

  • Problems That May Occur at Execution Time

    • Programs might not work on the first try.

    • Each of the preceding phases can fail because of various errors that we’ll discuss throughout this book.

    • If this occurred, you’d have to return to the edit phase, make the necessary corrections and proceed through the remaining phases again to determine that the corrections fixed the problem(s).

    • Most programs in C++ input or output data.


Typical c development environment cont9

Typical C++ Development Environment (Cont.)

  • Certain C++ functions take their input from cin (the standard input stream; pronounced “see-in”), which is normally the keyboard, but cin can be redirected to another device.

  • Data is often output to cout (the standard output stream; pronounced “see-out”), which is normally the computer screen, but cout can be redirected to another device.

  • When we say that a program prints a result, we normally mean that the result is displayed on a screen.


Typical c development environment cont10

Typical C++ Development Environment (Cont.)

  • Data may be output to other devices, such as disks and hardcopy printers.

  • There is also a standard error stream referred to as cerr. The cerr stream is used for displaying error messages.


C language elements

C++ Language Elements

  • Comments

  • Compiler directives

  • Function main

  • Declaration statements

  • Executable statements


Comments

Comments

  • // symbols indicate a line comment – apply to just the rest of the line

  • Block comments start with /* and end with */ - apply to as many lines as you like

  • Used to describe the code in English or provide non-code information

  • E.g. to include the name of the program or the author’s name


Converting miles to kilometers

Converting miles to kilometers


Include filename

#include <filename>

  • Compiler directive

  • Includes previously written code from a library into your program

  • E.g.

    #include <iostream>

    has operators for performing input and output within the program

  • Libraries allow for code reuse


Using namespace std

using namespace std;

  • Indicates to compiler that this program uses objects defined by a standard namespace called std.

  • Ends with a semicolon

  • Follows #include directives in the code

  • Must appear in all programs


Function main

Function main

int main ( )

{

// function body

}


Function main1

Function main

  • Exactly one main function per program

  • A function is a collection of related statements that perform a specific operation

  • int indicates the return type of the function

  • ( ) indicates no special information passed to the function by the operating system


Types of statements

Types of Statements

  • Declaration statements – describe the data the function needs:

    const float KM_PER_MILE = 1.609;

    float miles,

    kms;

  • Executable statements – specify the actions the program will take:

    cout << “Enter the distance in miles: ”;

    cin >> miles;


General form of a c program

General Form of a C++ Program


Variables

Variables

  • Give a name to a memory location

    • Compiler accesses specific memory location when program uses a given variable

  • Refer to objects in the program for which the value can change

  • Declaration

    type variableName; // or

    type variableName = initializerExpression;


Variables1

Variables

  • Variables Declaration

    • Can be either initialized or uninitialized…

    • If variable is uninitialized Contents must be considered as “garbage value”

  • Examples:

    int age = 18;

    double GPA = 3.25, credits;

    char letterGrade = ‘A’;

    bool ok, done = false;


Data types

Data Types

  • Defines a set of values and operations that can be performed on those values

  • integers

    • positive and negative whole numbers,

      e.g. 5, -52, 343222

    • short, int, long

    • represented internally in binary

    • predefined constants in INT_MIN and INT_MAX


Data types con t

Data Types (con’t)

  • Floating point (real)

    • number has two parts, integral and fractional

    • e.g. 2.5, 3.66666666, -0.000034, 5.0

    • float, double, long double

    • stored internally in binary as mantissa and exponent

    • 10.0 and 10 are stored differently in memory


Data types con t1

Data Types (con’t)

  • Boolean

    • named for George Boole

    • represent conditional values

    • Return: true and false


Data types con t2

Data Types (con’t)

  • Characters

    • represent individual character values

      E.g. ’A’ ’a’ ’2’ ’*’ ’”’ ’’

    • stored in 1 byte of memory

    • special characters: escape sequences

      E.g. ’\n’ ’\b’ ’\r’ ’\t’ ‘\’’


String class

string Class

  • Strings not built-in, but come from library

  • Classes extend C++

  • string literal enclosed in double quotes

    E.g.: “Enter speed:“ “ABC” “B” “true” “1234”

  • #include <string>

    • for using string identifiers, but not needed for literals


Identifiers

Identifiers

  • Consist of letters, digits, and the underscore character (_)

  • Must begin with a letter or underscore

  • C++ is case sensitive

    • NUMBER is not the same as number

  • Two predefined identifiers are cout and cin

  • Unlike reserved words, predefined identifiers may be redefined, but it is not a good idea


Identifiers continued

Identifiers (continued)

  • The following are legal identifiers in C++:

    • first

    • conversion

    • payRate


Summary

Summary

  • Identifier consists of letters, digits and underscores, and begins with letter or underscore


Bibliography

Bibliography

  • Adams, J. & Nyhoff, L. (2003). C++ An Introduction to Computing, 3rd ed. Pearson Education, New Jersey.

  • Deitel, H.M & Deitel, A.S (2012). C++ How to Program, 8th ed. Pearson Education, London.

  • Friedman, F.L & Koffman, E.B (2011). Problem Solving, Abstraction, and Design Using C++, 6th International ed. Pearson Education, Massachusetts.

  • Malik, D.S. (2009). Introduction to C++ Programming, Brief International ed. Course Technology, Massachusetts.


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