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E NGLISH R HETORIC Fall 2006 9/18/2006 – 1/15/2007 Sophomore, Department of English Shih Hsin University. ENGLISHT RHETORIC is designed to ….

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ENGLISHRHETORICFall 20069/18/2006 – 1/15/2007Sophomore, Department of EnglishShih Hsin University

ENGLISHT RHETORIC is designed to …


ENGLISHT RHETORIC is designed to familiarize students of English as a foreign language with efficient communication, focusing primarily on the development of writing and speaking proficiency. To achieve this goal of learning on the part of students, the instructor will help review practical syntactic structures, semantic functions, lexical study, as well as discourse analysis. Through this measure, students will learn to appreciate the art of interpersonal communication through English, as well as logical presentation through writing and speaking.

The following introductory references have been discussed in detailed for helping students to appreciate the art ofRHETORIC, thereby prompting their motivation and interest in the practical learning of English.


Definition of modern rhetoric
Definition of modern RHETORIC

Definition of modern RHETORIC

RHETORIC simply means the art of speaking or writing effectively.

(From Writer’s Resources by Julie Robitaille and Robert Connelly, P. 142)

Rhetorical patterns are ways of organizing information. Rhetorical patterns can be

Used to structure paragraphs, essays, and exams. Becoming familiar with the various rhetorical patterns with the various rhetorical patterns can help you become better writer or speaker because you will learn various strategies for organizing and presenting information.

(From Writer’s Resources by Julie Robitaille and Robert Connelly, P. 142)

Also, grammar and semantics will help you polish your writing and speech from a

rhetorical point of view. Eventually, you will become a truly competent speaker and writer. (Li 2006)


http://rhetoric.eserver.org/

What is RHETORIC?

RHETORIC & Composition

RHETORIC & Speech

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhetoric

  • Rhetoric (from Greek ρήτωρ, rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is the art or technique of persuasion, usually through the use of language. Rhetoric is one of the three original liberal arts (the other members are dialectic (辯證)and grammar) in Western culture. In ancient and medieval times, grammar concerned itself with correct language use through the study and criticism of literary models, dialectic concerned itself with the testing and invention of new knowledge through a process of question and answer, and rhetoric concerned itself with persuasion in public and political settings such as assemblies and courts of law.

  • From another point of view, however, the problems of rhetoric can be seen as involving a relation to philosophy. (Semantics, Syntax and discourse anlysis)


RHETORIC simply means the art of speaking and writing effectively

(Writer’s Resources P. 142). Remember this reminder all the time.


Writing and speaking are two of the most difficult yet most significant activities (arts) we can engage in as human beings. Writing and speaking help us know what we think, and , as a result, they help us to be able to cope with the series of challenges in all the careers we are interested in. (Rewritten from Writer’s Resources, P. xix)

The contents of RHETORIC encompass the diverse spectrum of lexicons, philosophy, logic,


Why Write and Speak? most significant activities (arts) we can engage in as human beings. Writing and speaking help us know what we think, and , as a result, they help us to be able to cope with the series of challenges in all the careers we are interested in. (Rewritten from (WRP. 3) And How?

It is through our writing and speaking that people form opinions of us and of our ability to efficiently communicate clearly.

Learning to write and speak well is very important because they give us power. Efficient writing and speaking enable us to accomplish our goals, including studying in school, getting and keeping a good job, and simply

communicate our ideas clearly with people around us, or internationally.

Turn to PP. 4-13 for the views of Alicia, Tony, Dan and Beth.

Also, think about “using journals” to help improve your writing. (Chap 2)


Writing/Speaking Elements and Skills most significant activities (arts) we can engage in as human beings. Writing and speaking help us know what we think, and , as a result, they help us to be able to cope with the series of challenges in all the careers we are interested in. (Rewritten from

Chapter 19: Parts of Speech (PP. 269 – 279)

Eight parts of Speech (Review)

Nouns

Pronouns

Verbs

Prepositions

Adjective

Adverbs

Conjunctions

Interjections


Plato most significant activities (arts) we can engage in as human beings. Writing and speaking help us know what we think, and , as a result, they help us to be able to cope with the series of challenges in all the careers we are interested in. (Rewritten from outlined the difference between true and false rhetoric.

Plato (427-347 BC) has famously outlined the differences between true and false rhetoric in a number of dialogues, but especially the Gorgias and the Phaedrus. Both dialogues are complex and difficult, but in both Plato disputes the Sophistic notion that an art of persuasion, the art of the Sophists which he calls "rhetoric" (after the public speaker or rhêtôr) can exist independent of the art of dialectic. Plato claims that since Sophists appeal only to what seems likely or probable, rather than to what is true, they are not at all making their students and audiences "better," but simply flattering them with what they want to hear. Plato's animosity against the Sophists derives not only from their inflated claims to teach virtue, but from the fact that his teacher, Socrates, was accused of being a sophist and ultimately sentenced to death for his teaching. In his dialogues, Plato attempts to distinguish the rhetoric common to Socratic questioning from Sophistry.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhetoric


Sixteenth century most significant activities (arts) we can engage in as human beings. Writing and speaking help us know what we think, and , as a result, they help us to be able to cope with the series of challenges in all the careers we are interested in. (Rewritten from

One influential figure in the rebirth of interest in classical rhetoric was Erasmus (c.1466-1536). His work, De Duplici Copia Verborum et Rerum (1512), was widely published (it went through more than 150 editions throughout Europe) and became one of the basic school texts on the subject. Its treatment of rhetoric is less comprehensive than the classic works of antiquity, but provides a traditional treatment of res-verba (matter and form): its first book treats the subject of elocutio, showing the student how to use schemes and tropes; the second book covers inventio. Much of the emphasis is on abundance of variation (copia means "plenty" or "abundance", as in copious or cornucopia), so both books focus on ways to introduce the maximum amount of variety into discourse. For instance, in one section of the De Copia, Erasmus presents two hundred variations of the sentence "Semper, dum vivam, tui meminero".

Desiderius Erasmus was an exponent of classical rhetoric


One of Ramus' followers, Audomarus Talaeus (Omer Talon) published his rhetoric, Institutiones Oratoriae, in 1544. This work provided a simple presentation of rhetoric that emphasized the treatment of style, and became so popular that it was mentioned in John Brinsley's (1612) Ludus literarius; or The Grammar Schoole as being the "most used in the best schooles." Many other Ramist rhetorics followed in the next half-century, and by the 1600s, their approach became the primary method of teaching rhetoric in Protestant and especially Puritan circles. See Walter J. Ong, Ramus and Talon Inventory (Harvard University Press, 1958); Joseph S. Freedman, Philosophy and the Arts in Central Europe, 1500-1700: Teaching and Texts at Schools and Universities (Ashgate, 1999). John Milton (1608-1674) wrote a textbook in logic or dialectic in Latin based on Ramus' work, which has now been translated into English by Walter J. Ong and Charles J. Ermatinger in The Complete Prose Works of John Milton (Yale University Press, 1982; 8: 206-407), with a lengthy introduction by Ong (144-205). The introduction is reprinted in Ong's Faith and Contexts (Scholars Press, 1999; 4: 111-41).

John Milton, English poet and rhetorician


Great Speeches of the 20th Century. published his rhetoric, 1991.

LA: Rhino Word Beat


Abraham Lincoln - November 19, 1863 published his rhetoric,

Gettysburg, Pennsylvania


The spot where Lincoln published his rhetoric,

delivered his memorable

Gettysburg Address in 1863.


The gettysburg address
The Gettysburg Address published his rhetoric,

Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this

continent, a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the

proposition that all men are created equal.

Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.

But in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate - we cannot consecrate - we cannot hallow - this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember, what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us - that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion - that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain - that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom - and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

Abraham Lincoln - November 19, 1863


Capitol Hill published his rhetoric,

Washington, D.C.

USA


Lincoln Memorial published his rhetoric, , Washington, D.C. (Photo by Chen-ching Li Sep. 3, 2005)


The Gettysburg Address published his rhetoric,

Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this

continent, a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the

proposition that all men are created equal.

Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.

But in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate - we cannot consecrate - we cannot hallow - this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember, what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us - that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion - that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain - that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom - and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

Abraham Lincoln - November 19, 1863


Martin luther king
Martin Luther King published his rhetoric,


Abraham Lincoln published his rhetoric,

November 19, 1863



John f kennedy
John F. Kennedy published his rhetoric,

"I do solemnly swear that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will try to the best of my ability, to preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States."


We observe today published his rhetoric, not a victory of party but a celebration of freedom—symbolizing an end as well as a beginning—signifyingrenewal as well as change.

And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you—ask what you can do for your country.

My fellow citizens of the world: ask not what America will do for you, but what together we can do for the freedom of man.

From a rhetorical point of view, what

do you think are the unique features

In these three paragraphs of

President John F. Kennedy’s

Inaugural address?

John F. Kennedy, President of USA

Friday, Jan. 20, 1961

Washington, D.C.


Nixon
Nixon published his rhetoric,

“I am not a crook.”

The bunch of crooks who run the government deserve severe penalty.


President Richard Nixon of the United States of America visited the People’s Republic of China at the invitation of Premier Chou En-lai of the People’s Republic of China from February 21 to February 28, 1972. Accompanying the President were Mrs. Nixon, U.S. Secretary of State William Rogers, Assistant to the President Dr. Henry Kissinger, and other American officials.

The U.S. side declared:

The United States acknowledges that all Chinese on either side of the Taiwan Strait maintain there is but one China and that Taiwan is a part of China. The United States Government does not challenge that position. It reaffirms its interest in a peaceful settlement of the Taiwan question by the Chinese themselves. With this prospect in mind, it affirms the ultimate objective of the withdrawal of all U.S. forces and military installations from Taiwan. In the meantime, it will progressively reduce its forces and military installations on Taiwan as the tension in the area diminishes.


Ellen johnson sirleaf president of liberia jan 17 2006
Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf, visited the People’s Republic of China at the invitation of Premier Chou En-lai of the People’s Republic of China from President of Liberia Jan. 17 2006

The Harvard-educated economist and grandmother promised to rid her country of corruption, and set the stage for recovery from Liberia’s bitter and violent past.

Johnson Sirleaf promised Monday to unite her people. “We know that your vote was a vote for change, a vote for peace, security and stability, a vote for individual and national prosperity, a vote for healing and leadership,” she said. “We have heard you loudly.” (USA Today Jan. 17, 2006)


“Not that I love Caesar less, visited the People’s Republic of China at the invitation of Premier Chou En-lai of the People’s Republic of China from

But I love Rome more.” (Brutus)


A Sample for practice in conjunction with Rhetoric at SHU, 2006-2007

Written and spoken homework will be assigned in accordance with the textbook.

Name: 蔡佳伶Christy

ID number: A94320205

My View of Driving Safety

Using a cell phone while driving is dangerous. Driving needs concentration. When you are using a cell phone while driving, you will pay attention only to talking. If there is an accident occurring, you can’t respond or take action immediately. Consequently, you may hurt yourself or others when you are talking on the cell phone while driving.

Besides, using a cell phone while driving is illegal. You will be fined for using a cell phone while driving. In a word, it is not good at all for you to use a cell phone while driving.


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