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NANOBIOSENSORS. Cagri Ozge Topal OSU ECEN 5060 Nanotechnology. Abstract. The revolution of nanotechnology in molecular biology gives an opportunity to detect and manipulate atoms and molecules at the molecular and cellular level. Definition of Nanobiosensor History

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Cagri Ozge Topal

OSU ECEN 5060 Nanotechnology



The revolution of nanotechnology in molecular biology gives an

opportunity to detect and manipulate atoms and molecules at the

molecular and cellular level.

  • Definition of Nanobiosensor

  • History

  • Types of Nanobiosensors

  • Working Principle and Fabrication of Optical and FET Nanobiosensors

  • Application Areas and Current Research

  • Future Research

What is a nanobiosensor

What is a Nanobiosensor?

  • A biosensor is a measurement system for the detection of an analyte that combines a biological component with a physicochemical detector, and a nanobiosensor is a biosensor that on the nano-scale size


    TransducerDetectorBiological Recognition Element


    Living biological system

    (cell, tissue or whole organism)

    Biological molecular species

    (antibody, enzyme, protein…)

Biosensor development

Biosensor Development

  • 1916 First report on the immobilization of proteins: adsorption of invertase on activated charcoal.

  • 1956 Invention of the first oxygen electrode [Leland Clark]

  • 1962 First description of a biosensor: an amperometric enzyme electrode for glucose. [Leland Clark, New York Academy of Sciences Symposium]

  • 1969 First potentiometric biosensor: urease immobilized on an ammonia electrode to detect urea. [Guilbault and Montalvo]

  • 1970 Invention of the Ion-Selective Field-Effect Transistor (ISFET).

  • 1972/5 First commercial biosensor: Yellow Springs Instruments glucose biosensor.

  • 1976 First bedside artificial pancreas [Clemens et al.]

  • 1980 First fiber optic pH sensor for in vivo blood gases.

  • 1982 First fiber optic-based biosensor for glucose

  • 1983 First surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunosensor.

  • 1987 Launch of the blood glucose biosensor[ MediSense]



Principle of Detection


ElectrochemicalElectric distribution

OpticalLight intensity


Types of Nanobiosensors

Optical Biosensors Nanotube Based Biosensors

Electrical BiosensorsViral Nanosensors

Electrochemical Biosensors Nanoshell Biosensors

Nanowire Biosensors



  • Optical Nanobiosensors

    A sensor that uses light to detect the effect of a chemical on a biological system. [Kopelman et al.]

    The small size of the optical fibers allow sensing intracelular intercelular physiological and biological parameter in micro- environment.

    Two kind of fabrication methods for optical fiber tips;

    1) Heat and Pull Method

    2) Chemical Etching



Nanowire Field Effect Nanobiosensors(FET)

Sensing Element

Semiconductor channel (nanowire) of the transistor.

  • The semiconductor channel is fabricated using nanomaterials such

    a carbon nanotubes,metal oxide nanowires or Si nanowires.

  • Very high surface to volume radio and very large portion of the atoms are located on the surface. Extremely sensitive to environment

Applications of nanobiosensors

Applications of Nanobiosensors

Biological Applications

  • DNA Sensors; Genetic monitoring, disease

  • Immunosensors; HIV, Hepatitis,other viral diseas, drug testing, environmental monitoring…

  • Cell-based Sensors; functional sensors, drug testing…

  • Point-of-care sensors; blood, urine, electrolytes, gases, steroids,

    drugs, hormones, proteins, other…

  • Bacteria Sensors; (E-coli, streptococcus, other): food industry,

    medicine, environmental, other.

  • Enzyme sensors; diabetics, drug testing, other.

    Environmental Applications

  • Detection of environmental pollution and toxicity

  • Agricultural monitoring

  • Ground water screening

  • Ocean monitoring

Future application

Future Application

Cancer Monitoring

  • Nanobiosensors play a very important role for early cancer detection in

    body fluids.

  • The sensor is coated with a cancer-specific antibody or other

    biorecognation ligands. The capture of a cancer cell or a target protein

    yields electrical, optical or mechanical signal for detection. [Professor

    Calum McNeil detection of cancer proteins that cause MRSA]

    Identification of Biomarkers

    Validation of Cancer Biomarkers

    Cancer Biomarkers

    Ligands / Probes Developments

    Cancer Diagnostics Biosensor ← Detector

    Point of Care Cancer Diagnostics



  • Cullum, B.(2000). The development of optical nanosensors for biological measurements. Trends in Biotechnology, Vol 18,388-393.

  • Vo-Dihn, T.(2002).Nanobiosensors: Probing the sanctuary of individual living cells. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry Supplement, Vol. 39, 154-161

  • Pathak, P. et al.(2007). Cancer Research - Nanoparticles, nanobiosensors and their use in cancer research. Journal of Nanotechnology Online, Vol.3, 1-14.

  • Rogers, K.(2006). Recent advances in biosensor techniques for environmental monitoring. Analitica Chimica Acta. Vol. 568(1-2), 599-624.

  • Li, C. (2005).Complementary Detection of Prostate-Specific Antigen Using In2O3 Nanowires and Carbon Nanotubes. Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol.127(36), 12484-12485.

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