Spring 2014 - SCE 4360 Science: Middle and Secondary School. Florida Atlantic University College of Education. Instructor: Dr. Ronald C. Persin University of Pittsburgh, B.S. Duquesne University, M. Ed. Florida Atlantic University, Ed.D.
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Spring 2014 - SCE 4360
Science: Middle and Secondary School
Florida Atlantic UniversityCollege of Education
Instructor: Dr. Ronald C. Persin
University of Pittsburgh, B.S.
Duquesne University, M. Ed.
Florida Atlantic University, Ed.D.
Phone : 561-251-1479 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
(Office Hours by Appointment)
(Supplies: lined paper, pens, pencils)
How to Set-up Your 3-Ring Binder(Section Dividers) SyllabusClassnotesHandoutsInquiry ActivitiesAssignmentsReading Questions
Behavior and properties of the elements in nature.
Relationship between humans and their surroundings.
Study of living things (plants & animals).
Study of matter and energy.
Structure of the Earth and its place in the Universe.
Does the color of food or drinks affect whether or not we choose them?
Does music have an affect on plant growth?
Which kind of material is best for magnetic shielding?
Which paper towel brand is the strongest?
What is the best way to keep an ice cube from melting?
Can background noise levels affect how well we concentrate?
Do cellphone batteries charge at a uniform rate?
What is the best way to keep cut flowers fresh the longest?
Does the color of light used on plants affect how well they grow?
Which candle color burns fastest?
The Scientific Method
Created in 1795 by the French Academy of Science to unify existing systems.
Original meter was one ten-millionth of the distance from North Pole to Equator along Prime Meridian.
In the early1900’s this was changed to a certain number of wavelengths of light from Kr-86. (605.78 nm)
Prefix SymbolPower Example
milli m 10-3milligram
(Examples of each? Think Metric!)
Ex: What is the average thickness of a sheet of paper?
The 7 Basic MKS SI Units
Système International (French)
1. Meter - length
2. Kilogram - mass
3. Second - time
4. Kelvin - temperature
Other units are derived (area, speed, density, force, energy, …)
Also, MKS vs CGS
5. Ampere - electric current
6. Candela - luminous intensity
7. Mole - amount of substance
Recent Major Developments in Science
Science is the study of the natural world in order to understand it.(NSES, 1996.)Branches: Biology, Chemistry, Earth & Space, Environmental, Mathematics, Physics, Social, and Computer Science.
Science vs. Technology
Technology is the application science to the natural world according to human wants and needs. (ITEA, 2000)
Apps: Organ cultures, Synthroid, Voyager 2, Sustainability, Data mining, Nuclear power, Crowd sourcing, and Apps.
Given with magnitude (size or amount) only
(Name a few more. Can be arithmetically combined.)
Given with magnitude and direction
(All shown with an Arrow. Can be combined with Algebra, Geometry, Trig, and Calculus.)
Using processes to alter/change the natural world, such as
Practical Problem Solving
Ex. Cartesian diver – Rene Descartes (1596-1650)
Whether A Field is a Science is Based on 6 Criteria
Can you think of any fields that aren’t sciences?
Keeping Science Explanations Simple
Occam's razor is the principle that “entities must not be multiplied beyond necessity”, ie., the simplest explanation is usually the correct one.
Attributed to William of Ockham, 14th-century British mathematician/theologian.
From Einstein "Everything should
be kept as simple as possible, but
Ex. – Crop Circles (made by UFO’s/aliens or people?)
The Nature of Inquiry (NGSS, NRC, NSTA)
Ex. What is the average speed
of a falling object?
1. Asking Questions and Defining Problems. 2. Developing and Using Models.
3. Planning and Carrying out Investigations.4. Analyzing and Interpreting Data.
5. Use Math, Information/Computer Tech., Computational Thinking.6. Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions.
7. Engaging in Argument from Evidence.8. Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information.
Goals of 21st century science teachers:
Help students see science as a way of thinking and investigating as well as an accumulated body of knowledge.
Link science with student’s lives outside school.
Science lessons built from a small number of simple concepts.
Ex. Inertia before Newton’s
Laws of Motion, an Apple
How to Represent Knowledge (from the text):
Mnemonics (pronounced "ne-mon'-ics") is the art of assisting the memory by using a system of artificial aids - rhymes, rules, phrases.
Help to recall names, dates, facts, and figures.
1. To remember processes that define living things: MRS GREN.
Kids Prefer Cheese Over Fried Green Spinach.
i before e, except after c
Alpha, Bravo, Charlie, …
The principal is our pal.
Every Good Boy Does Fine.
Used to write numbers in compact form
1. Move the decimal to show a value in the range of 1 to 10
2. Include the metric prefix to indicate the number of decimal places moved
= ____ Mm
1. Proper expression of measured and calculated values. (NGSS Standard)
2. Results must not have more significant digits than the least precise value.
Ex. Find the area 16.2 cm
A = _____
(more examples, Earth/Moon data, Speed of Light, …)
1. Metric toMetric
Powers of 10, move decimal point
Ex. 1 kg = ____ g
2. English to Metric
Use conversion factors, then
a. Proportion method Ex. 1.00 in. = 2.54 cm. 12.0 in. = ___ cm.
b. Unit cancellation method Ex. 25.0 mi/hr= ____ m/s.
Problem Solving (5 steps)
What is given?
Identify the unknown
Write the formula relating unknown to known
Solve the formula for the unknown
Substitute-in the known data and simplify
Ex. – The density of gold is 19.6 g/cm³. Find the mass of 10.0 cm³ of gold. Equation: D = m/V .
Used for expressing very large or very small values
Standard Form is base x 10exponent
base is from 1.0 to 9.999…
if exponent is positive the value is greater than 1
if exponent is negative the value is less than 1
Ex. - Write 1 AU, 149,000,000,000 m, in standard form.
Expanded Form - move decimal point the number of places given by the exponent
Ex. - Write the Speed of Light, 3.0x108 m/s, in expanded form.
(more examples, radius of Earth, mass of Earth, Distance to Moon)
Ex. How Number of Swimmers Relate to Air Temperature
Biology – study of living things, with Botany as the study of plants and Zoology as the study of animals.
Chemistry – study of the behavior and properties of the elements (118) in nature.
Organic - study of compounds (nucleic acids, fats, fuels, sugars, proteins) containing Carbon with Hydrogen.
Inorganic - the study of those (salts, metals, minerals) with Carbon or Hydrogen.
Earth & Space – study of the structure of the Earth and its place in the Universe.
Environmental Science – study of the relationships between humans and their surroundings.
Physics – the study of the relationship between matter and energy.
2. Energy is the ability to do work, and measured in Joules..
3. The 2 types of energy are Kinetic (due to motion, K = ½ mv²), and Potential (due to position, U = mgh).
4. Forms of energy are mechanical, electricity, magnetism, light, heat, sound, chemical, and nuclear. All can be inter-converted.
5. Matter can be converted to energy, E = mc².(Games.)
University of Aahaus, Denmark
Her work involves slowing down light to 17 m/s in an ultra-cold gas.
Spent 7 months at CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics near Geneva.
Now teaches at Harvard.
Dr. Lene Vestergaard
“After I discovered quantum physics, I've been hooked ever since. I would rather do science than go to the movies.”
Born in Hong Kong
Graduated from Vassar, Summa Cum Laude and Phi Beta Kappa. Then, Ph.D. from Harvard.
At MIT, she played a key role in the discovery of the gluon, the particle that holds quarks together to form protons and neutrons.
“Reading the biography of Marie Curie inspired me so much that I decided to devote my life to science.”
Dr. Sau Lan Wu
Dr. Edward Witten, Ph.D.
Brandeis University, B.S. in Physics and Mathematics.
Princeton, M.S., and Ph.D. in Physics.
Then to Harvard for teaching and research.
Appointed professor of Physics at Princeton.
Now, Professor in the School of Natural Sciences at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton.
Leading proponent of String Theory.
(He could be our modern day Einstein.)
“If you are a researcher, you are trying to figure out what the question is as well as what the answer is.”
First tenured woman in physics at Princeton, Harvard and now at MIT.
Most cited theoretical physicist in the world in the last five years.
Research in high energy physics is primarily related to finding the smallest particles of matter.
Dr. Lisa Randall
“I liked math because all the problems had answers. Everything else seemed very subjective. Early on, I realized I was thinking about the world a little differently than my friends.”
In a Bronx, N.Y., high school where the dropout rate was 60 percent, a guidance counselor declined to give Stephon Alexander an application to an Ivy League university.
"You won't get in," Alexander recalls the counselor saying. But Alexander proved the counselor wrong.
After a BS at Haverford and a Ph.D. in Physics from Brown University, the counselor appears to have gotten it wrong. After his Ph.D., Alexander was at London's Imperial College.
Currently he is a member of the SLAC high energy physics group and Stanford's ITP (Institute for Theoretical Physics).
Member of SuperNova/Acceleration Prove (SNAP) mission at Lawrence Berkeley Lab.
Professor at the University of Alabama, continuing to collaborate with the SNAP project.
Self-described “regular guy” from Mississippi, doesn’t remember exactly how he first became interested in science, but says, “I’ve always thought scientists were supercool.”
Dr. Valerie Bennett
B.S. Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics - Vanderbilt University.
M.S. Mechanical Engineering - Georgia Tech.
Ph.D. Mechanical Engineering - Georgia Tech.
Professor of Physics at Morehouse College.
- Analyzing Fatigue Properties of Nanostructures.- Computational Microstructional Analysis of Fatigue.
Most Recent Publication:
Bennett, V.P. and McDowell, D.L., Micromechanics of Microstructurally Small Surface Cracks in Polycrystals, Proc. ICF 10, Honolulu, HI.
"Only you put limitations on yourself - don't be afraid to reach for the stars."
Came to U.S. in 1992 from the Dominican.
He earned a B.S and an M.S. from Hofstra. Then a doctorate from NYU. Member of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM).
Responsible for the design and operation of the Collider-Accelerator Dept at Brookhaven.
These include the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collier (RHIC), and cutting-edge R&D accelerators, such as the Energy Recovery Linac.
Accelerator RF systems are used to control beam energy, stabilize particle motion, and control the distribution or spread in energies among particles.
Dr. Freddy Severino
Dr. Brian Greene, Ph.D.
Harvard, 1984, B.S., Physics & Math
Oxford University, 1986, Ph.D., Rhodes Scholar.
Physics faculty of Cornell, 1990.
1996, joined Columbia University as professor of physics and of mathematics.
Founder and director of Columbia’s Institute for Strings, Cosmology, and Astroparticle Physics, a research center seeking string theory’s implications for theories of cosmology.
Your students could become our next
“Scientists of Today”!