Taking inventory africa s mineral agricultural resources their impact in today s global economy
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Taking Inventory: Africa's Mineral & Agricultural Resources & their Impact in Today's Global Economy. Haki Kiema February 25, 2009. Outline. Overview of Africa’s Geography Minerals Diamonds Gold Uranium Petroleum Agricultural Resources Cash Crops: Coffee, Tea, Cocoa Shea Butter

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Haki Kiema February 25, 2009

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Taking Inventory:Africa's Mineral & Agricultural Resources& their Impact in Today's Global Economy

Haki Kiema

February 25, 2009


  • Overview of Africa’s Geography

  • Minerals

    • Diamonds

    • Gold

    • Uranium

    • Petroleum

  • Agricultural Resources

    • Cash Crops: Coffee, Tea, Cocoa

    • Shea Butter

    • Aloe Vera

  • African Wildlife

  • Conclusion

Overview of Africa’s Geography

  • Disclaimer: Africa has too many resources to concisely present on, the presentation will therefore focus on some of the major world minerals & resources used in trade

  • http://videos.howstuffworks.com/hsw/7697-africa-geographical-features-of-africa-video.htm

Minerals & Resources

  • The African continent supplies about half of the world's diamonds as well as large quantities of

    • Gold

    • Uranium

    • Platinum, copper, chromite, cobalt, manganese, antimony, phosphate rock, asbestos, bauxite, tin, iron ore, tungsten, lead, zinc, silver, vanadium, and coal

  • From these countries come diamonds, gold, copper, cobalt, and a variety of other minerals.


  • Minerals were created when magma poured into older geological formations and cooled slowly allowing the minerals to concentrate

  • A similar process produced diamond-bearing kimberlite deposits in countries such as the DRC, Botswana, South Africa, and Angola. Elsewhere—including Sierra Leone and other parts of the DRC—old streambeds contain diamonds that have been washed downstream.

  • Used as an abrasive in

    • Cutting,

    • Grinding,

    • Drilling and polishing procedures

  • Used as a gemstone

  • One of the main minerals responsible for major conflicts in the continent

Diamond Producers


  • Gold is extracted from rich reefs that consist of layers of old metamorphosed sediments that have been tilted upwards.

  • Uses:

    • Currency

    • Electronics – the telephone (i.e. circuits)

    • Space & Aeronautics – radiation shield

    • Medicine – treats rheumatoid arthritis

    • Environmental – catalyst in green chemistry

    • Nanotechnology – nanostructures construction

    • Engineering – lubricating coating

    • Food & Drink – gold leaf

    • Beauty – as nanoparticles

    • Jewelry

  • One of the main minerals responsible for major conflicts in the continent

World Gold Supply

Oil Production

Uranium Production

Sub-Saharan Africa: Mineral Resources & Political Instability


2006 Coffee Production


Asia is the largest tea-producing region, in Africa, the crop is mostly grown in the East African region with Kenya being the region’s largest tea exporter

Cocoa Production

Shea Butter: The Organic Gem of Africa

  • Derived from the fire-resistant Shea/Karite tree

    • Tree grows naturally in the wild in the dry savannah belt of West Africa

    • 1st fruits produced when tree is 20 years old, reaches full production at 45 years and can produce for up to 200 years

  • It takes ~30 labour intensive hours to produce 1 kg of Shea Butter

About Shea Butter

  • High in Vitamin A, E & F; essential for healthy skin

  • Uses:

    • Cooking oil/cocoa butter replacement in the chocolate industry

    • In cosmetics – as a moisturizer, for the body, face and hair

    • Emollient – for dry skin

    • Anti-inflammatory agent

Shea Butter Continued

  • Sun protectant: provides 0 – 6 SPF depending on the shea butter grade

  • It has been used to improve the following:

    • Eczema, itchy skin, wrinkles, scars, stretch marks, psoriasis, poison ivy, acne, joint & muscle pain, insect bites, amongst other conditions

Aloe Vera

  • Derived from the aloe vera plant.

  • Probably originated from North Africa & is closely related to Aloes in the same region

  • Species introduced to Asia & Southern Europe in the 17th century

Aloe Vera …Cont’d

  • Uses:

    • Cosmestics – manufacture of soaps, lotions, sunscreen, make-up…

    • Alternative medicine: topical use in wound/burn healing

      • Insufficient scientific evidence A.Vera sap’s effect in wound healing

African Wildlife – Some Interesting Facts

  • Did you know…

    • Victoria Falls (located between Zambia & Zimbabwe) is one of the 7 natural wonders of the world

    • Four of the five fastest land animals live in Africa - the cheetah (70 mph), wildebeest, lion, and Thomson's gazelle (all about 50 mph)

    • The world's biggest frog is found in Cameroon. Named the goliath frog, their body can be one-foot long.

    • The only place where shools of fresh water sardines are found is in Lake Tanganyika.

    • The largest seal colony in the southern hemisphere is a Cape Cross in Namibia.


  • It’s impossible to quantify the vastness of the continent’s wealth/resources

  • African minerals & resources help to drive the global economy…with many more yet to be discovered

  • The continent’s economic potential has barely been attained

  • Considering Africa as an equal in the global financial market will reap great financial rewards for all


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