The communication of musical expression
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The Communication of Musical Expression. Roger A. Kendall & Edward C. Carterette University of California, Los Angeles Reviewed by Erdem Unal. Introduction. Result: both musicians and non-musicians can discern expressive levels of instruments.

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The Communication of Musical Expression

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The communication of musical expression

The Communication of Musical Expression

Roger A. Kendall & Edward C. Carterette

University of California, Los Angeles

Reviewed by Erdem Unal


Introduction

Introduction

  • Result: both musicians and non-musicians can discern expressive levels of instruments

  • Focuses on Performer-Musical Chain of musical communication…

    • BASIC QUESTION:

      “How does the performer convey his ideas to the listener?”

  • Experimental methods:

    • Categorization, matching and rating

    • Acoustical analyses of timing and amplitude


Background

Background

  • Grouping and parsing elementary thought units are basic mental capability of humans

  • Music is conceived as basing on a system of sequences of states such as sound states, acoustic states, symbol states, mental states…

  • At the transitions between these states, human can mentally organize a pattern.


Experimental rationale

Experimental Rationale

  • Focus: To what extent are the performer’s expressive intentions conveyed to the listener.

    categorization: assign an instance to a model

    matching: compels the listener to remember

    rating: listener assigns values


Experiment data

Experiment Data:

  • 5 instruments: piano, clarinet, oboe, violin and trumpet.

  • Expert pianist performed selected pieces in three expressive levels:

    • No expression (mechanic)

    • Appropriate

    • Exaggerated (too much)

  • Expert players ( clarinet, oboe, violin, trumpet) listened to these recorded performances (each expression only once) and asked to perform the intended expression level once each…


Experiment i categorization under piano performances

Experiment I (Categorization under piano performances)

  • Results: (9 musicians)

    ClarinetOboe ViolinTrumpet

    Exp Lvl P1 P2 P3 P1 P2 P3 P1 P2 P3 P1 P2 P3

    E1 8 1 0 8 1 0 9 0 0 8 1 0

    E2 1 6 2 1 6 2 0 2 7 1 6 2

    E3 0 1 8 0 3 6 0 7 2 0 2 7

    Hit: 81 74 48 78

  • Results: (10 non-musicians)

    ClarinetOboe ViolinTrumpet

    Exp Lvl P1 P2 P3 P1 P2 P3 P1 P2 P3 P1 P2 P3

    E1 6 3 1 6 2 2 8 1 1 8 0 2

    E2 1 7 2 1 6 3 1 2 7 2 6 2

    E3 2 2 6 2 2 6 1 6 3 2 3 5

    Hit 63 6043 70


Experiment ii categorization under other instruments

Experiment II (Categorization under other instruments)

  • Results: (10 musicians –two sets)

    ClarinetOboe ViolinTrumpet

    Exp Lvl P1 P2 P3 P1 P2 P3 P1 P2 P3 P1 P2 P3

    E1 11 7 2 10 6 4 14 2 4 14 2 4

    E2 4 14 2 6 13 1 3 10 7 7 6 7

    E3 2 9 9 3 5 12 1 10 9 5 2 13

    Hit: 57 58 55 55

  • Discussion: Results are sufficient (over 33%)

    • First experiment gave better results


Experiment iii time and amplitude deviation

Experiment III (Time and Amplitude Deviation)

  • Expressive levels are analyzed with acoustical signal processing software. Main focus at this point is timing and RMS of amp.:

  • Time and amplitude derivations of the piano onsets and the four instruments’ expressive performances are observed.

  • Artificial performance: synthesis of notes with the experimental values of amplitude and time


Exp iii cont

Exp. III cont…

Correlations of Time Deviations

Piano1 Oboe1 Trumpet Violin1Clarinet1

Piano11.000

Oboe1 .658 1.000

Trumpet1.167 .443 1.000

Violin1.038 .374 .222 1.000

Clarinet1.007 .136 .371 .441 1.000


Exp iii cont1

Exp III cont…

  • Results: (12 non-musicians)

    ClarinetOboe ViolinTrumpet

    Exp Lvl P1 P2 P3 P1 P2 P3 P1 P2 P3 P1 P2 P3

    E1 7 3 2 7 0 5 5 5 2 8 2 2

    E2 4 8 0 2 8 2 2 2 8 2 6 4

    E3 1 1 10 3 4 5 5 5 2 2 4 6

    Hit: 69 56 33 56

    Same Problem (!!!) at E2-E3 Violin

    Conclusion: Timing and amplitude are sufficient for categorization…


Experiment iv feature added rating

Experiment IV (Feature added: Rating)

  • 10 musicians asked to rate a set of melodies that includes random selections of artificial and natural performances between 1 and 100.

  • The mean ratings are observed:

    • Expressive levels are clearly shown by ratings

    • As a result, natural performances are more expressive…


Conclusion

Conclusion:

  • Detailed statistical data proves:

    Both musicians and non-musicians can discern expressive intent along natural and artificial performances.


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