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Global Geography 12 Chapter 1. A Pale Blue Dot?. Let’s Talk about Earth. “It is a curious feature of our existence that we come from a planet that is very good at promoting life but even better at extinguishing it.” - Bill Bryson A Brief History of Nearly Everything. At a Glance.

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Let s talk about earth
Let’s Talk about Earth

“It is a curious feature of our existence that we come from a planet that is very good at promoting life but even better at extinguishing it.”

- Bill Bryson

A Brief History of Nearly Everything


At a glance
At a Glance.

  • 4.54 billion years old

  • Composition is mostly water

  • Wide array of elements

  • Complex systems that regulate life and the conditions for life

  • Life in many forms – 99% extinction rate


Adapt survive
Adapt & Survive

  • Charles Darwin showed us that life evolves

  • Gradual changes that allow life to meet the demands of its environment

  • Continuous process. If not, what happens?

    Appendix – Digest leafy food

    Adrenal Glands – Fight mechanism

    Virus – Anti-biotic resistant


No place for wimps
No Place for Wimps

Earth:

Total Land Area – 29%

1/5 Too Cold for Humans

1/5 Too Dry for Humans

1/5 Too Steep for Humans

1/5 Unable to Sustain Large Populations

90% of the population lives on 1/5

of the land



Getting to know the planet
Getting to Know the Planet

  • A magical and messed up place:

    A) Vast Divisions Resources

  • Population

  • Wealth

  • Political (In)Stability

    Each can bring prosperity and challenges


Population pyramids data value
Population Pyramids & Data Value

Question: Why is population study important?

  • Birth & Death rates

  • Fertility rates

  • Taxation rates / general government spending – Old vs. Young population

    4) Economic growth

    5) Immigration strategies



Population 101
Population 101

Defined: The total number of inhabitants of a given area

Why is Population Important?

  • Survival of species

  • Environmental impact

  • Government data

  • Economics



The population bomb
The Population Bomb

Theory of Thomas Malthus

  • We produce in an unlimited fashion

  • We have limited resources

  • Measure need to be put in place to curb population growth


Population pressure
Population Pressure

Carrying Capacity – The number of living organisms that a region can support without degradation of environment


What does it mean
What Does it Mean?

Fertility Rate

Infant Mortality Rate

Birth Rate

Death Rate


Fertility rate
Fertility Rate

Average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime


Infant mortality
Infant Mortality

The number of infant deaths (one year of age or younger) per 1000 live births

Major issue in developing countries:

  • Dehydration

  • Diarrhea

  • Pneumonia


Birth death rate
Birth & Death Rate

Birthrate – The number of live births per thousand of population per year


Do the math
Do The Math

Birth rate= Births/Population x 1000

Canada:

Population - 33,987,876

Births 2004 – 91,003


Physical quality of life index
Physical Quality of Life Index

Measures the quality of life or well-being of a country. The value is the average of three statistics:

Basic literacy rate,

Infant mortality

Life expectancy at age one

Decided by the United Nations


D ld lld
D, LD, LLD

D = Developed

LD = Developing

LLD = Least Developed


Developed Country:

Long life expectancy

Low infant mortality

Low poverty rates

High industrial development

High literacy & schooling rates


Developing Country:

Higher levels of poverty

Agricultural-based economy

Economically unstable

Moderate literacy & schooling rates


Least Developed:

Low socio-economic development

High poverty & unemployment rates

Sparse economic opportunity

High rate of curable disease

Reduced access to schooling


Examples
Examples

Developed States - ?

Developing States - ?

Least Developed States - ?


Globalization
Globalization

  • The shrinking of the world through economics, technology and travel

    I’ve been everywhere


Globalization pros cons
Globalization Pros & Cons

Pros of Globalization:

  • Longer lifespan (medicine, medical engineering, R&D)

  • Increased personal income

  • Access to technology

  • Promotion of Human Rights

  • Cultural Diffusion – sharing of ideas

  • Social Solidarity – working to make society a better place to live


Modern globalization
Modern Globalization

  • Driven by Economics & Technology

  • Economics/Tech has shrunken the world and generally enhanced wealth and prosperity


How?

  • Countries trade with each other freely

  • This has caused great prosperity

  • This is called Free Trade

  • No taxes or duty on products moving across borders


Economics in a globalized world
Economics in a Globalized World

  • Resources and labor now transcend borders

  • Increased cooperation among countries and businesses for a common goal – wealth and prosperity

  • Free Trade is the central cog in the wheel


Free trade nuts bolts
Free Trade Nuts & Bolts

  • States have an incentive to keep dollars within their borders – Why?

  • Barriers are in place to defend against an outflow of money –Protectionism

  • Barriers are called Tariffs or Duties


Freer trade
Freer Trade

  • As the world become more globalized, trade increased dramatically

  • It was now cumbersome to put restrictions on trade – slowed economic growth

  • Trade ‘Free’ of tariffs emerged

  • Explosion of Free Trade Agreements


What free trade means
What Free Trade Means

  • Increased cooperation amongst nations

  • Increased capacity for wealth

  • Lower prices for consumers (most of the time)

  • Chance for corporations to become multi-national


Mo money
Mo Money

  • MNCs have access to a range of capital (resources)

  • Invest in growth

  • Technology at the forefront

  • Massive leaps in tech growth


The good political globalization
The Good: Political Globalization

  • Advances in technology has allowed for the promotion of human rights

  • Empirical evidence

  • Allows Human Rights Organizations to make known the scope and scale of abuses

  • Pressure governments or international organizations to respond – what does respond mean?


Globalization the bad
Globalization: The Bad

  • Better technology, improved transportation and free trade have not always created good things

  • Environmental Exploitation

  • Human Exploitation


Globalization the bad environment
Globalization: The Bad - Environment

  • Explosion of wealth and prosperity has exacted a toll on the planet

  • LLD states are fast industrializing

    More cars, more industry, more people


Globalization gap
Globalization Gap

  • Increased wealth worldwide has been distributed disproportionately.


Reflection questions
Reflection Questions

Transnational Credit Auction

  • Please complete the following the submit

  • Identify the ‘human consequences’ associated with auctions like this.

  • Based on your experience with the auction, explain the extent you agree or disagree with this statement:

    Poor countries need investment, so it’s

    A good thing when MNCs invest there


3) What, if anything, could poor countries do to stop the race to the bottom in foreign investment.


Interrupt the system
Interrupt the System race to the bottom in foreign investment.

  • Fair Trade Movement – companies that guarantee a fair price is paid to commodities producers – The Tall & Small

  • Buy Local Movement – 150km range of products


How did you do
How Did You Do? race to the bottom in foreign investment.

Step 1:

  • Compare the data for your 5 countries? Are they consistent?

    Step 2:

  • Is the data for your developed countries directly opposite of your least developed?

    Step 3:

  • Do your developing states contain data

    in between D & LLD?


Global changes
Global Changes race to the bottom in foreign investment.

After reading the provided article:

- Using two (2) examples, identify positive changes that are taking place in ME/NA countries related to human rights – esp with women.


Looking ahead political globalization
Looking Ahead: Political Globalization race to the bottom in foreign investment.

  • Social media is revolutionizing political globalization

  • Facebook/Youtube/Twitter are allowing the world a unique glimpse at human rights issues

  • Used extensively in the Arab Spring – a series of revolutions in the Middle East


Population state problems
Population & State Problems race to the bottom in foreign investment.

  • Food Access & Availability

  • LLD Exploitation

  • Economic Depression/Exploitation

  • Energy Needs


In perspective
In Perspective race to the bottom in foreign investment.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9_9SutNmfFk&feature=related


Starting point north south
Starting Point – North/South race to the bottom in foreign investment.


Food race to the bottom in foreign investment.

  • As of 2012 the planet can produce enough food for its population

  • Yet hunger runs rampant – 1 billion hungry (UN 2012)


Globalization challenges exploitation child labour
Globalization Challenges: Exploitation & Child Labour race to the bottom in foreign investment.

  • Coltan Mining in the Congo

  • Coltan is a rare mineral used extensively in the production of electronics – namely cell phones

  • Large mineral deposits in central Africa


Coltan
Coltan race to the bottom in foreign investment.

Problematic:

  • LLD state

  • No direct economic benefits to producers

  • Links with armed groups

  • Concerns about working conditions/child labour


Ld lld challenges child labour
LD & LLD Challenges: Child Labour race to the bottom in foreign investment.

  • UNICEF (2011) estimates that 158 million children (aged 5-14) are currently engaged in child labour

  • Most common areas include sub-Sahara Africa and Southeast Asia

  • Gender dominant – usually girls

    *Identify 3 sub-Sahara countries and build

    a PQLI profile of them.


  • An estimated 246 million children are engaged in child labour. Nearly 70 per cent (171 million) of these children work in hazardous conditions – including working in mines, working with chemicals and pesticides in agriculture or with dangerous machinery. They are everywhere, but invisible, toiling as domestic servants in homes, labouring behind the walls of workshops, hidden from view in plantations. The vast majority of working children – about 70 per cent – work in the agriculture sector .


Togo chocolate
Togo Chocolate labour. Nearly 70 per cent (171 million) of these children work in hazardous conditions – including working in mines, working with chemicals and pesticides in agriculture or with dangerous machinery. They are everywhere, but invisible, toiling as domestic servants in homes, labouring behind the walls of workshops, hidden from view in plantations. The vast majority of working children – about 70 per cent – work in the agriculture sector .

  • Western Africa produces nearly a quarter of the worlds coco

  • MNC’s like Nestle import vast quantities of W.African coco

  • Coco cultivation is largely handled by trafficked children

  • Nestle makes a variety of popular western chocolate bars.


Child labour defined
Child Labour Defined labour. Nearly 70 per cent (171 million) of these children work in hazardous conditions – including working in mines, working with chemicals and pesticides in agriculture or with dangerous machinery. They are everywhere, but invisible, toiling as domestic servants in homes, labouring behind the walls of workshops, hidden from view in plantations. The vast majority of working children – about 70 per cent – work in the agriculture sector .

  • UNICEF defines child labour as work that exceeds a minimum number of hours, depending on the age of a child and on the type of work. Such work is considered harmful to the child and should therefore be eliminated.

  • Ages 5-11: At least one hour of economic work or 28 hours of domestic work per week.

  • Ages 12-14: At least 14 hours of economic work or 28 hours of domestic work per week.

  • Ages 15-17: At least 43 hours of economic or domestic work per week.


Child labour worldwide
Child Labour Worldwide labour. Nearly 70 per cent (171 million) of these children work in hazardous conditions – including working in mines, working with chemicals and pesticides in agriculture or with dangerous machinery. They are everywhere, but invisible, toiling as domestic servants in homes, labouring behind the walls of workshops, hidden from view in plantations. The vast majority of working children – about 70 per cent – work in the agriculture sector .

In your notes:

  • Identify the country – compose a demographic analysis

  • Identify the scope of the problem of child labour – use any relevant facts/figures

  • Note the nature of the child labour – what are the kids doing

  • Explain why children are forced to work


Stopping child labour
Stopping Child Labour labour. Nearly 70 per cent (171 million) of these children work in hazardous conditions – including working in mines, working with chemicals and pesticides in agriculture or with dangerous machinery. They are everywhere, but invisible, toiling as domestic servants in homes, labouring behind the walls of workshops, hidden from view in plantations. The vast majority of working children – about 70 per cent – work in the agriculture sector .

  • Major mandate of the UN

  • Pressure gov’t to enforce child labour laws

  • Free trade blind eye

    Buy nothing day


The value
The Value. labour. Nearly 70 per cent (171 million) of these children work in hazardous conditions – including working in mines, working with chemicals and pesticides in agriculture or with dangerous machinery. They are everywhere, but invisible, toiling as domestic servants in homes, labouring behind the walls of workshops, hidden from view in plantations. The vast majority of working children – about 70 per cent – work in the agriculture sector .

$100.00 Nike Shoes

  • Production labour $2.75

  • Materials 9.00

  • Rent, equipement 3.00

  • Supplier’s operating profit 1.75

  • Duties 3.00

  • Shipping 0.50

  • Cost to Nike $20.00


Sweatshops
Sweatshops labour. Nearly 70 per cent (171 million) of these children work in hazardous conditions – including working in mines, working with chemicals and pesticides in agriculture or with dangerous machinery. They are everywhere, but invisible, toiling as domestic servants in homes, labouring behind the walls of workshops, hidden from view in plantations. The vast majority of working children – about 70 per cent – work in the agriculture sector .

Nike: Code of Conduct?


Sweatshop q a
Sweatshop Q & A labour. Nearly 70 per cent (171 million) of these children work in hazardous conditions – including working in mines, working with chemicals and pesticides in agriculture or with dangerous machinery. They are everywhere, but invisible, toiling as domestic servants in homes, labouring behind the walls of workshops, hidden from view in plantations. The vast majority of working children – about 70 per cent – work in the agriculture sector .

What - A factory or workshop, notably in the clothing industry, where manual workers are employed at very low wages for long hours and under poor conditions

Where – Generally in LLD states worldwide

Who – Many Multinational Corporations use sweatshop labour

When – Sweatshops operate year round


Continued
continued labour. Nearly 70 per cent (171 million) of these children work in hazardous conditions – including working in mines, working with chemicals and pesticides in agriculture or with dangerous machinery. They are everywhere, but invisible, toiling as domestic servants in homes, labouring behind the walls of workshops, hidden from view in plantations. The vast majority of working children – about 70 per cent – work in the agriculture sector .

Why – Cheap labour, materials and weak government regulations. A reliable means to maximize profit.


Chasing cheap labour
Chasing Cheap Labour labour. Nearly 70 per cent (171 million) of these children work in hazardous conditions – including working in mines, working with chemicals and pesticides in agriculture or with dangerous machinery. They are everywhere, but invisible, toiling as domestic servants in homes, labouring behind the walls of workshops, hidden from view in plantations. The vast majority of working children – about 70 per cent – work in the agriculture sector .

  • Free trade zones have opened up borders for foreign investment

  • MNCs can now take advantage of cheaper production costs off-shore

  • FTZ provide a slew of incentives and benefits for MNCs


More negative sides to sweatshops
More Negative Sides to Sweatshops labour. Nearly 70 per cent (171 million) of these children work in hazardous conditions – including working in mines, working with chemicals and pesticides in agriculture or with dangerous machinery. They are everywhere, but invisible, toiling as domestic servants in homes, labouring behind the walls of workshops, hidden from view in plantations. The vast majority of working children – about 70 per cent – work in the agriculture sector .

  • They operate in countries with weak laws

    (labor/environmental/wage)

  • They do not allow unions

  • They often bribe government officials to look the other way for violations

  • They are big polluters


Sweatshop myth
Sweatshop Myth labour. Nearly 70 per cent (171 million) of these children work in hazardous conditions – including working in mines, working with chemicals and pesticides in agriculture or with dangerous machinery. They are everywhere, but invisible, toiling as domestic servants in homes, labouring behind the walls of workshops, hidden from view in plantations. The vast majority of working children – about 70 per cent – work in the agriculture sector .

“If those people didn’t have those jobs, they would be much worse off”

Problems with this assumption?


Mythbusting
Mythbusting labour. Nearly 70 per cent (171 million) of these children work in hazardous conditions – including working in mines, working with chemicals and pesticides in agriculture or with dangerous machinery. They are everywhere, but invisible, toiling as domestic servants in homes, labouring behind the walls of workshops, hidden from view in plantations. The vast majority of working children – about 70 per cent – work in the agriculture sector .

  • Sweatshop labour has been found to actually hamper economic growth

  • They do not allow for economic variety within a country

  • Keep the workforce uneducated – no future leaders

  • Built on a system of dependence


Political globalization
Political Globalization labour. Nearly 70 per cent (171 million) of these children work in hazardous conditions – including working in mines, working with chemicals and pesticides in agriculture or with dangerous machinery. They are everywhere, but invisible, toiling as domestic servants in homes, labouring behind the walls of workshops, hidden from view in plantations. The vast majority of working children – about 70 per cent – work in the agriculture sector .

  • Technology has made it more difficult for countries to hide human rights violations

  • Governments talk with each other more in the interests of making money

  • Communication has allowed people to expose important issues – Arab Spring


Social conscience
Social Conscience labour. Nearly 70 per cent (171 million) of these children work in hazardous conditions – including working in mines, working with chemicals and pesticides in agriculture or with dangerous machinery. They are everywhere, but invisible, toiling as domestic servants in homes, labouring behind the walls of workshops, hidden from view in plantations. The vast majority of working children – about 70 per cent – work in the agriculture sector .

The Kathy Lee case


Issues in food security
Issues in Food Security labour. Nearly 70 per cent (171 million) of these children work in hazardous conditions – including working in mines, working with chemicals and pesticides in agriculture or with dangerous machinery. They are everywhere, but invisible, toiling as domestic servants in homes, labouring behind the walls of workshops, hidden from view in plantations. The vast majority of working children – about 70 per cent – work in the agriculture sector .

According to the Red Cross, 2007 and 2009 were the two worst years for natural disasters ever recorded.

As global warming increases, floods and droughts will increase – both threatening the ability to grow food.



Water water everywhere
Water, Water Everywhere region.

  • World = 78.87% water

  • 2-4% is usable/fresh

    Fresh Water – Water void of excessive salination



Loss of biodiversity
Loss of Biodiversity region.

  • Threat to life security

  • Mass extinctions are occurring at a faster rate

  • Driven by human industry and urban expansion

    The stats -


At risk
At Risk region.

  • At threat of extinction are

    • 1 out of 8 birds

    • 1 out of 4 mammals

    • 1 out of 4 conifers

    • 1 out of 3 amphibians

    • 6 out of 7 marine turtles

  • 75% of genetic diversity of agricultural crops has been lost

  • 75% of the world’s fisheries are fully or over exploited

  • Up to 70% of the world’s known species risk extinction if the global temperatures rise by more than 3.5°C

  • 1/3rd of reef-building corals around the world are threatened with extinction

  • Over 350 million people suffer from severe water scarcity


The problem unsustainability
The Problem: Unsustainability region.

  • Human interference in ecosystems

    Examples:

  • Emissions – CO2, Dioxide

  • Urban sprawl

  • Chemical contamination

  • Light pollution

  • Overexploitation

  • Technological interference


Outlook
Outlook region.

Watch the following video and consider the following:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EGMkW_vo5GU&feature=player_embedded#!

  • Explain how overfishing is occurring and why it is a threat to humanity

  • What is happening to the worlds forests?


Bee gone
Bee Gone! region.

  • Colony Collapse Disorder

  • Prevents bees from locating their hive

  • Could cause a 50% drop in agricultural harvests


Sydney tar ponds
Sydney Tar Ponds region.

Images:


Background
Background region.

  • Toxic drainage pond from the former Sydney Steel

  • Result of coke oven waste – toxic byproducts of steel making process

  • Coke ovens drained into small pond in central Sydney


Biodiversity loss
Biodiversity Loss region.

  • Water fowl – Variety of birds have been poisoned

  • Marine Life – Amphibians poisoned

  • Ground Water Contamination

  • General genetic stress on variety of organisms


Human toll
Human Toll region.

  • Eyesore

  • Noticeable smell

  • Higher than average cancer rates

  • Noticeable increase in respiratory disorders



Stop loss biodiversity
Stop Loss: Biodiversity region.

  • 1997 Kyoto Protocol – Emissions reductions

  • 2010 Oslo Accord – Emissions

  • EPA – Environmental protection agency

  • Crown land reserve act

  • Marsh land protection act

  • Protective legislation


Grim future or hope
Grim Future? Or Hope? region.

Promoting Sustainability Movement

  • International campaign that promotes community sustainable development

    Ie: Farmers markets, alternative energy, energy audits, incentive campaigns



Thresholds
Thresholds region.

You Start – page 36

  • Define “Threshold” and give an example

  • What is a sustainable society?

  • What is a natural threshold?


Population threshold
Population Threshold region.

Case Study – China

Vitals:

Population – 1,337,224,743

Birthrate – 1.5


One child policy
One Child Policy region.

  • What is the One Child Policy?

  • Why was it created?

  • How is it enforced?

  • Identify at least two (2) consequences resulting from it.

  • Is it ethically right to enforce a One Child Policy?

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H4OWJlyaHt0


The chinese social economic paradox
The Chinese Social & Economic Paradox region.

  • China is currently experiencing a period of rapid economic growth; however, huge portions of the population live in poverty

  • Population has put a strain on social services (schools/healthcare) and employment

    Question – How to slow population growth?


One child nuts bolts
One Child – Nuts & Bolts region.

  • Formalized policy of 1 child per family – although no uniformly enforced

  • Violation can lead to fines or reduced access to social services

  • Reports of forced abortions and adoptions – against the law

  • Rural areas follow the spirit of the law


One child fallout
One Child Fallout region.

  • Sex imbalance – 120 boys / 100 girls

  • Little Emperors/Empresses phenomenon

  • Sex selection through pre-natal planning

  • Orphaned children

  • Bare Branch Theory


Looking ahead
Looking Ahead region.

  • Should other countries institute a 1 Child Policy?

    In groups, make your case. Why or why not.


Sloooooooow population
Sloooooooow Population region.

  • Education – Classes on family planning

  • Better access to birth control – free and universal

  • Technology – Modern technology will ease population concerns

  • Shift societal attitudes about smaller families

  • Incentives for smaller families – tax credits


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