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Unit 16 Comprehensive Abilities through Comparative Studies. By PYSH. 1. 汉英语言类型对比 2. 汉英语义对比 3. 汉英句法对比 4. 汉英语体风格对比 5. 汉英语篇衔接对比 6. 汉英修辞对比 . 1. 汉英语言类型对比. I. Comparative Studies of Chinese & English at Macroscopic Levels. 汉语 Analytic language 语法关系主要不是通过词本身的形态来表达,而是通过虚词、词序等手段来表达。

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slide2
1. 汉英语言类型对比
  • 2. 汉英语义对比
  • 3. 汉英句法对比
  • 4. 汉英语体风格对比
  • 5. 汉英语篇衔接对比
  • 6. 汉英修辞对比
i comparative studies of chinese english at macroscopic levels

1. 汉英语言类型对比

I. Comparative Studies of Chinese & English at Macroscopic Levels
  • 汉语Analytic language
    • 语法关系主要不是通过词本身的形态来表达,而是通过虚词、词序等手段来表达。
  • 英语Synthetic Language
    • 主要通过词本身的形态变化来表达语法意义。
slide4
Few follow the advice of Isabella Beeton, the greatest British cook in the 19th century, who decreed in an early edition of her book that “a good meal, if enjoyed and digested, gives the support necessary for the morning’s work.”
  • 十九世纪英国烹饪大师伊莎贝拉•比顿曾在其著作的一个早期版本里说过:“受用一顿美餐,能使整个上午工作精力充沛。”这番高见,现在很少有人领教了。
  • When he has taken his exercise and is drinking his tea or his beer, and lighting his pipe…(George Santayana, The Weather in His Soul)
  • 在他运动之余品茶或喝酒,并点着烟斗时……
slide5
分析型与综合型
  • 1.1 意合与形合(Parataxis & Hypotaxis)
  • 1.2 具体与抽象(Concrete & Abstract)
  • 1.3 动态与静态(Dynamic & Static)
1 1 parataxis hypotaxis
1.1 Parataxis & Hypotaxis(意合与形合)
  • 汉语:词语或语句间的连接主要凭借语义或语句间的逻辑关系来实现。
  • 英语:词语或语句间的连接主要依仗连接词或语言形态手段来实现。
slide7
她们正打架,不巧被我撞见了。
  • I happened to be present when they were having a fight.
  • 好不容易才说服她照我的想法办。
  • With some difficulty I brought her round to my way of thinking.
  • 只见那个理发师俯下身,听小姑娘说,她要什么发式。
  • Leaning down to hear the little girl, the barber listened to her about the style she wanted.
slide8
酒不醉人人自醉。
  • It is not that the wine intoxicates the drinker but that the drinker gets himself drunk.
  • It is not the wine that intoxicates the drinker but the drinker who gets himself drunk
  • 对人太苛求,没有什么道理,自己也容易失望。
  • You have little cause to make excessive demands from others and make yourself disappointed in return.
1 2 concrete abstract
1.2 Concrete & Abstract(具体与抽象)
  • 汉语:表达上倾向于具体。
  • 英语:表达上倾向于抽象。
slide10
他绝望了,正在此时,他见到远方的 帆影,有了绝处逢生的希望。
  • He gave up all the hope when the appearance of a distant sail raised his hope of rescue.
  • 越来越多的老人发现儿孙们对于流行乐表现出日益浓厚的兴趣,他们也渐渐接受了这个事实。
  • It seems that there is a growing acceptance by the old generation of their children and their grandchildren’s increasing interest in pop music.
1 3 dynamic static
1.3 Dynamic & Static(动态与静态)
  • 汉语表达上趋向于动态
  • 英语则更具有静态特征
slide12
我倒了一杯茶给他喝。
  • I offered him a cup of tea.
  • 他拿着枪,绕着屋子巡走。
  • He walked around the house with a gun.
  • 游行的人拿着鲜花和彩旗在街道上行进。
  • The people paraded in the street, flowers and banners in their hands.
  • 实现理想境界要靠辛勤劳动。
  • To translate ideals into reality needs hard work.
  • 解决问题的最好办法是进行调查研究。
  • The best way to solve the problem is to conduct investigations.
ii practical abilities attained from translation studies and criticism
II. Practical Abilities Attained from Translation Studies and Criticism

The mastery of a foreign language is a long-term task that entails constant efforts. So is translation. A conscientious translator should learn to develop and enhance various abilities, among others, language sensibility, contextual analysis, logical thinking, etc. One of the effective ways of ability development is to compare translated versions and the originals with a critical eye, so as to develop good taste and acquire a keen sense of distinguishing right from wrong.

(掌握一门外语是一项需要不断努力的长期任务。翻译亦如此。一个严谨认真的翻译工作者应学会培养和增强自己各方面的能力,包括语感能力、语境分析能力、逻辑思维能力等等。翻译能力培养的有效方法之一就是用批评的眼光对译文文本和原作进行比较,以培养对于译作的优良鉴赏力,获得判断正误的敏锐感觉。) P.218-224

l anguage sensibility
Language Sensibility
  • Language sensibility here means a good understanding of a given word or phrase. (此处的语感能力是指对于特定词语的良好的理解力。)
  • 译者的翻译水平往往是译者语感领悟力的综合体现。所谓语感,对于译者来说就是其对源语和目的语的感知能力。在翻译实践中,译者既要熟悉源语的语言文化,凭语感直觉把握原文的精神,又要排除源语语言模式的干扰,用地道目的语进行翻译创作,把握好译文的结构、语义和语气。所以,傅雷先生说:“我们除了专业修养、广泛涉猎以外,还得训练我们观察、感受、想象的能力。”这里的观察、感受、想象能力实际上就是语感能力的具体表现。
  • 语感的把握往往需要通过翻译实践来完成,而遣词用字、语气句式、字斟句酌又离不开语境分析和逻辑推理。教材中所列的8个典型的误译句,大多与这三方面能力欠佳有关。Examples are shown from P.218-220.
2 contextual analysis
2. Contextual Analysis
  • As was mentioned in Unit 2, context plays an indispensable role in translation, and “each word, when used in a new context, is a new word.” (正如在第二单元中所提到的那样,语境在翻译中发挥着必不可少的作用,“在新语境中使用的每个单词都是生词。”)
  • 语境即产生语言活动的环境,含时空、语言交际者、语言活动的目的等,反映在文字材料上亦称上下文。语境分析是把握原文语境气氛的重要手段。由于语言总是在一定交际环境中使用的,因此,分析语言现象必须把语言与之相关的语境联系起来,离开特定的语境,就难于确定该语段的特定结构和意义。语境失察会影响译文的感染力,而语境分析的失误则会直接导致译文的败笔。For example: P.220-222
3 logical thinking 1
3. Logical Thinking (1)
  • Logical thinking is another inseparable ability in the process of translation. More often than not, when we focus on our attention literal meaning of some given words and try to copy existing sentence patterns, we are prone to commit logical fallacies. (逻辑思维是翻译中另一种不可分割的能力。多半会有这种情况:当我们把注意力集中于某些特定词语的字面意思并努力仿照现有句型时,我们最容易犯逻辑错误。)
3 logical thinking 2
3. Logical Thinking (2)
  • 钱歌川先生说过:“逻辑是翻译者的最后一张王牌,是他必须具有的基本素质。…凡是翻译出来一字一句,一事一物,都必须要合乎逻辑,合乎情理,否则必然有错。太阳不能从西方出来,父亲不会比儿子年少,小器不能容大物,半数不能表全体,诸如此类,凡是违反人情天理的,都是悖理的,也多半是译错的。”P.222-224
reflections and practice
Reflections and Practice
  • I. Discuss the following questions (P. 224).
  • 开放式讨论自己对于“十大关系”、“三种能力”的看法。
  • II. Compare the different Chinese versions with original English and then comment on them (P. 224-226).
  • 此题旨在让学生领悟翻译的三种境界:译字、译意、译味。
slide19
翻译的三种境界
  • 金岳霖先生明确提出:“翻译有两种,一种是译意,一种是译味。译味,是把句子所有的各种情感上的意味,用不同的文字表示出来,而所谓译意,就是把句子底意念上的意义,用不同的语言文字表示出来。相当于某一方面的文字也许显而易见要译意,相当于某另一方面的文字也许显而易见要译味。…译味麻烦得多。味包括种种不同的趣味与情感,而这些又非习于一语言文字的结构而又同时习于此语言文字的历史环境风俗习惯的人根本得不到。得一语言文字所表示的意义是比较容易的事,得一语言文字表示的味是比较困难的事。”
slide20
翻译的三种境界(续)
  • 基于上理,翻译可分为译字、译意、译味三种不同境界。刘宓庆先生则将这三种翻译境界称为:表层翻译、浅层翻译、深层翻译三个层次。此练习中的Version A即为“译字”(或表层翻译),Version B即为“译意”(或浅层翻译),Version C即为“译味”(或深层翻译)。
slide21
2. 语义对比
  • 大量对应词语是汉英翻译的语言基础
  • 自然环境、思维方式、社会历史、文化传统的不同,导致不对应:
    • 词语的空缺(无对应)
    • 词义的差别(部分对应)
slide22
山 hill, mountain

鸡 hen,chick, rooster

青 green, blue

借 lend,borrow

兔 hare, rabbit

鼠 mouse, rat

你,您 you

江,河 river

父,母 parent

兄,弟 brother

嫁,娶 marry

叔,伯 uncle

部分对应现象
slide23
可译度障碍
  • 我属兔。
  • I was born in the Chinese lunar year of the rabbit.
  • 舅舅从桌上把花瓶拿去了。
  • Mother\'s younger brother has taken the vase away from the table.
slide24
语义的再现
  • 2.1 指称意义referential meaning:
    • 词语、句子和篇章反映的客观世界。
  • 2.2 言内意义linguistic meaning :
    • 一门语言内的词语成分之间、句子成分之间和篇章之间的关系所反映的意义。
  • 2.3 语用意义pragmatic meaning :
    • 表现为语言符号与语言使用者之间的关系,是语言符号对人产生的影响,包括联想意义,蕴含意义和象征意义。
slide25
2.1 指称意义
  • 知之为知之,不知为不知,是知也。(孔子《论语》)
  • When you know a thing, to hold that you know it, and when you do not know a thing, to allow(承认)that you do not know it — this is knowledge.(James Legge译)
  • 南京的风俗:但凡新媳妇进门,三日就要到厨下收拾一样菜,发个利市。这菜一定是鱼,取“富贵有余”的意思。(吴敬梓《儒林外史》)
  • The custom in Nanjing is for all brides to invite(引起)good luck by going to the kitchen on the third day and cooking a fish, which stands for fortune.(杨宪益、戴乃迭译)
slide26
2.2 言内意义
  • 彩云红雨暗长门,翡翠枝余萼绿痕。(郝经《落花》)
  • As rainbow clouds o’er (over) darkened door, red petals shower, on jadeite branch is left the trace of fallen flower. (许渊冲译)
  • 接收竟成了劫搜。
  • Taking-over turns out to be loot-taking.(李定坤《汉英辞格对比与翻译》)
slide27
2.3 语用意义
  • 当下贾母一一指与黛玉:“这是你大舅母,这是你二舅母,这是你先珠大哥的媳妇珠大嫂子。”(曹雪芹《红楼梦》)
  • …(Lady Dowager)the mother of Jia She and Jia Zheng, who now introduced the family one by one. “This,” she said, “is your elder uncle’s wife. This is your second uncle’s wife. This is the wife of your late Cousin Zhu.” (杨宪益、戴乃迭译)
  • Grandmother Jia now introduced those present. “This is your elder uncle’s wife, Aunt Xing. This is your Uncle Zheng’s wife, Aunt Wang. This is Li Wan, the wife of your Cousin Zhu, who died.”(David Hawkes 译)
slide28
翻译思路
  • 通过各种手段对译入语(英语)的词义加以补充或限定
    • 增减,阐释,借用,音译
  • 翻译时以整体意义为重,灵活变通,不拘泥于字面的对应
  • 词类的转换
slide29
她不满地走了。
  • She went away with dissatisfaction.
  • 前门驱虎,后门进狼。
  • Fend off one danger only to fall prey to another.
  • 他对她的行为有些怀疑。
  • He was suspicious of her behavior.
  • Her behavior aroused his suspicion.
  • He suspected her behavior.
slide30
3. 句法对比
  • 汉语:语义型或意合型,句子的根据在语义,重内在的逻辑关系
    • 无主语的句子和无动词的句子比比皆是
  • 英语:语法型或形合型,句子的根据在语法,重外在的形式连接
    • 句子的主语和动词不可或缺
    • 连接词(conjunction)的使用远远多于汉语
slide31
正在热闹哄哄的时节,只见那 后台里,又出来一位姑娘,年 纪约十八九岁,装束与前一个 毫无分别,瓜子脸儿,白净面 皮,相貌不过中人之姿,只觉得秀而不媚,清而不寒。(刘鹗《老残游记》)
  • Amidst the feverish bustling, there appeared on the stage a girl about eighteen or nineteen years old, dressed up just like the former. Her face was shaped like melon-seed. Her beauty was above the average woman-charming but not coquettish, and a clarity of complexion but not coldness.
slide32
主要差异
  • 3.1 句子基本成分对比
  • 3.2 “话题-说明”结构与“主语-谓语”结构
  • 3.3 “板块”式结构与“多枝共干”结构
  • 3.4 “左分支”结构与“右分支”结构
  • 3.5 人称与物称:汉英拟人法对比
  • 3.6 汉英平行结构对比
  • 3.7 汉英重量趋势对比
slide33
3.1句子基本成分对比
  • 英语的五种基本句型
    • SV
    • SVO
    • SVOO
    • SVOC
    • SVC
slide34
这个姑娘很漂亮。[主语+形容词谓语]
  • That girl is very pretty. [SVC]
  • 老舍是北京人。[主语+名词谓语]
  • Lao She was from Beijing. [SVC]
  • 这花儿是白的。[主语+判断谓语]
  • The flower is white.[SVC]
  • 水库是1958年修建的。[主语+判断谓语]
  • The reservoir was built in 1958. [SV(passive)]
slide35
他打破了杯子。[主语+谓语+宾语]
  • He broke the glass.[SVO]
  • 李先生教我们地理。[主语+谓语+宾语+宾语]
  • Mr. Li teaches us geography.[SVOO]
  • 他要我投寄这封信。[主语+谓语+宾/主语+谓语(兼语式)]
  • He asked me to post the letter.[SVOC]
  • 天上挂着一轮明月。[ (处所)+谓语+宾语(存现句)]
  • A bright round moon hangs in the sky.[SV]
slide36
S与V在英语中不可缺少,即使充当主语或谓语无实际意义,也须加上以满足语法形式的要求S与V在英语中不可缺少,即使充当主语或谓语无实际意义,也须加上以满足语法形式的要求
  • 叶子黄了。
  • The leaves turned brown.
  • 看样子要变天了。
  • It seems the weather is changing.
  • 当时我在北京。
  • I was in Beijing at the time.
  • ——是谁呀?——是我。
  • ——Who is it? ——It\'s me.
  • 不行!
  • It won\'t do!
slide37
3.2 “话题-说明”结构与“主-谓”结构
  • 汉语句子的“话题”与“说明”结构
    • “话题”是说明的对象,总是放在句子开头处。若语境或上下文能暗示话题,也可能省略不提。
    • “说明”位于话题之后,对话题进行说明、解释或质疑。
    • “说明”部分与“话题”部分不存在一致关系。“说明”可以是一个名词或动词,也可以是一连串的名词短语或连动结构,还可以由形容词及各种词组充当,对结尾没有限制,可长可短,视语义而定。
    • 汉语的连谓句典型地反映出话题的后面一长串说明的特点(因为凡与话题有关的内容都可放在后面对其进行说明)
  • 英语句子结构:一个主语和一个谓语相一致
slide38
老拴正在专心走路,忽然吃了

一惊,远远地看见一条丁字街,

明明白白横着。他便退了几步,寻到一家关着门的铺子,蹩进檐下,靠门停住了。(鲁迅《药》)

  • Absorbed in his walking, Old Shuan was startled when he saw the crossroad lying distantly ahead of him. He walked back a few steps to stand under the eaves of a shop in front of its closed door.
slide39
3.3 “板块”式结构与“多枝共干”结构
  • 汉语为“板块” 式结构: 其“意合”特点常表现为句内各成分一一罗列,呈并列状,外形上没有主从之分,层面之间没有明显的逻辑标记。
  • 英语为“多枝共干”型:英语句子的“主谓结构”为句子主干,其他成分则通过各种连带附加关系附着在这条主干上,犹如树枝与树干的关系。
slide40
话说天下大势,分久必合, 合久必分。
  • They say the momentum (势头) of history was ever thus: the empire, long divided, must unite; long united, must divide.
  • 他们进行挑衅活动,制造紧张局势,必须马上停止。
  • They must stop all their provocations (挑衅) at once, which create tensions.
slide41
3.4 “左分支”结构与“右分支”结构
  • 思维模式差异:
    • 中国人的思维模式基本上是首先考虑事物的环境和外围因素,然后考虑具体事物或中心事件。
    • 西方人的思维模式正相反,首先考虑中心事物,然后才加上外围因素。
slide42
思维方式差异在句子结构上的表现
  • 汉语“左分支”结构(“狮子头”形状)
    • 状语总放在谓语或句子主体前边
    • 定语无论长短,都置于中心词之前
    • 状语部分长,主谓部分短;
    • 主语部分长,谓语部分短;
    • 修饰成分长,中心成分短。
  • 英语“右分支”结构(“孔雀”形状)
    • 多数定语成分(除单词外)都置于中心词之后
    • 多数状语也置于主干成分之后
    • 重视末端重量,有时使用形式主语
slide43
村东头的王大妈来了,受坏人欺骗的村民们也来了。村东头的王大妈来了,受坏人欺骗的村民们也来了。
  • There came Aunt Wang who dwelt at the eastern end of the village, and also came the villagers who had been deceived.
  • 去年他为了完成一个项目在实验室用计算机努力地干了十个月。
  • He worked hard with a computer in the lab for ten months in order to complete a project last year.
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3.5 人称与物称:汉英拟人法对比
  • 这种思潮以陈独秀为代表,认为……
  • This view, represented by Chen Duxiu, was that …
  • 我们的事业从胜利走向胜利。
  • We have won one victory after another for our cause.
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金陵回春,古城新生,昔日饱尝的屈辱和灾难,至此如同梦魇终被摆脱。人民在自己的土地上辛勤劳作,把古城南京装扮得面貌一新。特别是近三十年来,改革开放又给这座美丽的名城注入了新的活力,崭新的工业……都使这个具有古都特色的现代都市焕发出勃勃英姿。金陵回春,古城新生,昔日饱尝的屈辱和灾难,至此如同梦魇终被摆脱。人民在自己的土地上辛勤劳作,把古城南京装扮得面貌一新。特别是近三十年来,改革开放又给这座美丽的名城注入了新的活力,崭新的工业……都使这个具有古都特色的现代都市焕发出勃勃英姿。
  • Balmy spring winds returned to bring new life to this historic city. The nightmarish sufferings and humiliations of the past were left behind once and for all. The citizens of Nanjing have been working hard to give this age-old town a new appearance. Especially for the past thirty years, the country’s reform and opening-up policy has infused new vigor into this beautiful and famous city. Newly built industries, … all these and more added charm and vitality to this modern metropolis, which retains the ambiance and features of an ancient capital.
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3.6 汉英平行结构对比
  • 汉语平行结构: “整句”中的句式结构。
    • 整句:结构相同或相似,字数大致相等, 整齐地排列在一起的一组句子。
    • 整句形式:对偶、排比、反复
  • Parallelism:英语话语组织的一种重要形式
    • 既是语法问题又是修辞问题
    • 不仅局限于句子层面,还包括篇章层面
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你在斗争中,劳动中,生活中,时常会有些东西触动你的心,使你激昂,使你欢乐,使你忧愁,使你深思,这不是诗又是什么呢?(杨朔《东风第一枝·小跋》
  • There is always something that can inspire you or motivate you. There is always something that can bring you joy or sorrow. There is always something that can get you impacted and set you thinking. Can it be anything but poetry?
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3.7汉英重量趋势对比
  • 汉语
    • 句首开放性(open beginning)
    • 句尾收缩性(contracting ending )或封闭性(closed ending )
  • 英语
    • 句首封闭性
    • 句尾开放性
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Combine the following sentences:
    • This is the egg that the boy hatched …
    • This is the rat that stole the egg…
    • This is the cat that caught the rat…
    • This is the dog that bit the cat…
    • This is the boy that chased the dog…
  • This is the boy that chased the dog that bit the cat that caught the rat that stole the egg that the boy hatched.
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那周瑞家的又和知能儿唠叨了一回,便往凤姐处来,穿过了夹道子,从李纨后窗下越过西花墙,出西角门,进凤姐院中。(《红楼梦》)
  • 译文1:After chatting for a time with the nun, Mrs. Chou went on to His-feng’s quarters. She walked through the passage, past Li Wan’s back window, and skirting the west wall entered His-feng’s compound by the west side-gate.(杨译)
  • 译文2:After gossiping a bit longer with Sapient, Zou Rui’s wife made her way to Xi-feng’s quarters. To get there she had to go down a passage-way between two walls, under the windows at the back of Li Wan’s apartments, along the foot of an ornamental wall, and through a gateway in the western corner of the compound. (霍译)
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4. 汉英语体风格对比
  • 汉语是声调语言(tone language)
    • 汉语的音节扩充
    • 汉语的音节重复
  • 英语是重音语言(stress language)
  • 两种语言各有自己的节奏特点
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4.1 音节扩充
  • 汉语:双音及多音节词中,有些字是义素,用来表意,有些字是形素,可能只用来补充音节。为顺应句子节奏增加的字词与其说是语义成分,不如说是结构成分
    • 把单音词扩充为双音词
    • 把双音节词扩充为四音节词
  • 翻译时,不要逐字死译
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没有父母兄弟,没有本家亲戚,他的唯一的朋友是这座古城。(老舍《骆驼祥子》)没有父母兄弟,没有本家亲戚,他的唯一的朋友是这座古城。(老舍《骆驼祥子》)
  • He had no parents or brothers, no relatives at all; the only friend he had was this ancient city.
  • 这是增强保健,避毒免灾的。(叶圣陶《倪焕之》)
  • It will make you strong and healthy and keep you out of harm\'s way.
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4.2 音节重复
  • 汉语:往往需要重复
    • 音节的平衡
    • 句法的完整性
  • 英语:尽量避免重复
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他的工作是洗桌子和漆桌子。
  • He was to wash [ ] and paint tables.
  • 我劝你应像躲避瘟疫那样躲避这种歌谣。
  • My advice is that you should try to avoid such rhymes as you would [ ] a pestilence.
  • 好办法,美国人出钱出枪,蒋介石出人......
  • What a splendid idea! The United States supplies the money and [ ] guns and Chiang Kai-shek [ ] the men.
  • 但是她都能忍受,......没有屈服,没有讨饶,没有流泪,(《新凤霞回忆录》)
  • But she bore all this with fortitude, never submitting, pleading for mercy or weeping...
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5. 汉英语篇衔接对比
  • 5.1 人称代词系统和 人称代词前指照应
    • 照应关系(reference)
    • 第三人称代词系统
  • 5.2 深层前指现象
  • 5.3 语篇衔接手段
reference
照应关系(reference)
  • 在语篇中,如果对于一个词语的解释不能从词语本身获得,而必须从该词语所指代的对象中寻求答案,就产生了照应(reference)关系。
    • 前指照应(anaphoric reference,也称回指照应)
      • 所指对象位于上文,即指代成分的指称位于指代成分之前;
    • 后指照应 (cataphoric reference,也称下指照应)
      • 所指对象位于下文,即指代成分的指称位于指代成分之后。
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解净收起图说,“大家出车吧,中午休息的时候再看,就贴在这里。”(蒋子龙《赤橙黄绿青蓝紫》)解净收起图说,“大家出车吧,中午休息的时候再看,就贴在这里。”(蒋子龙《赤橙黄绿青蓝紫》)
  • Xie Jing folded up the diagram and said, “Now get moving. I’ll paste this up here and you can have a look at it during the midday break.”
  • 离车库还有三四米,车库门就像认识主人似的自动掀启。(萧乾 《枣核》)
  • When it (the car) was three or four meters away from the garage, its door automatically opened as if it recognized its own master.(张培基译)
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第三人称代词系统
  • 汉语第三人称代词系统没有英语发达
    • 第三人称代词的使用频率比英语低很多,常有第三人称代词的省略或零式前指。
    • 现代汉语中,“他”的功能虽然出现了性、数、格的分化,但在很多情况下还担当着复数、所有格和两性共指代词的功能,需根据上下文判断出“他”的具体指代对象,确保译文正确。
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孔乙己是站着喝酒而穿长衫的唯一的人。他身材很高大;青白脸色,皱纹间经常夹些伤痕;一部乱蓬蓬的花白胡子。穿的虽然是长衫,可是又脏又破,似乎十多年没补,也没有洗。他对人说话,总是满口之乎者也,教人半懂不懂的。(鲁迅《孔乙己》)孔乙己是站着喝酒而穿长衫的唯一的人。他身材很高大;青白脸色,皱纹间经常夹些伤痕;一部乱蓬蓬的花白胡子。穿的虽然是长衫,可是又脏又破,似乎十多年没补,也没有洗。他对人说话,总是满口之乎者也,教人半懂不懂的。(鲁迅《孔乙己》)
  • Kong Yiji was the only long-gowned customer who used to drink his wine standing. A big, pallid man whose wrinkled face often bore scars, he had a large, unkempt and grizzled beard. And although he wore a long gown it was dirty and tattered. It had not by the look of it been washed or mended for ten years or more. He used so many archaisms in his speech that half of it was barely intelligible.
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5.2 深层前指现象
  • 深层前指现象造成理解困难,可能出现歧义前指,翻译时要正确理解原文,避免模糊和歧义
    • 前指词在语篇中指代对象不明确,或有两个或多个可能的先行项时:前指词的释义
    • 第三人称代词或零式前指:推理、分析语境,确认指代对象
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我何尝不也这样说。 他说这个碟子配上 鲜荔枝才好看。 (曹雪芹《红楼梦》)
  • Just what I said. But Baoyu insisted that the plate looked best with the fresh leeches. (杨宪益译)
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5.3 语篇衔接手段
  • 英语常使用第三人称代词的地方,汉语常使用原词复现的衔接方式
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一个浑身黑色的人,站在老栓面前,眼光正像两把刀,刺得老栓缩小了一半。(鲁迅《药》)一个浑身黑色的人,站在老栓面前,眼光正像两把刀,刺得老栓缩小了一半。(鲁迅《药》)
  • A man clad entirely in black stood before him, his eyes like daggers, making Old Shuan shrink to half his normal size.(杨宪益、戴乃迭译)
  • 且说宝玉来至梨香院中,先入薛姨妈室中来,正见薛姨妈打点针线与丫鬟们呢。宝玉忙请了安,薛姨妈一把拉了他,抱入怀内。(曹雪芹《红楼梦》)
  • On reaching Pear Fragrance Court, Baoyu went first to see Aunt Xue, whom he found distributing sewing to her maids. He paid his respects to his aunt, who caught him in her arms and hugged him.(杨宪益、戴乃迭译)
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6. 汉英修辞对比
  • 6.1 比喻
  • 6.2 委婉语
  • 6.3 排比
  • 6.4 对偶
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6.1 比喻
  • 完全对应的比喻所占的比例不大
  • 比喻的翻译困难:某种形象和某种意义(以联想意义为基础的比喻意义,即语用意义)的结合往往是约定俗成的,这种结合的可能性在各种语言里不尽相同
    • 保留原语形象
    • 转换原语形象
    • 舍弃原语形象而只传达喻义
  • 比喻的翻译原则:
    • 必须保证传译喻义,达到交际的根本目的
    • 尽量传递原语形象,或者代之以译语读者较能接受的另一个形象作为补偿
    • 喻义和形象不能两全时,舍形象,保喻义
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方鸿渐看唐小姐不笑的时候,脸上还依恋着笑意,像音乐停止后袅袅空中的余音。许多女人会笑得这样甜;但她们的笑容只是面部肌肉软操,仿佛有所教练在喊口令:“一!”忽然满脸堆笑,“二!”忽然笑不知去向,只余个空脸,像电影开映前的布幕。(钱钟书《围城》)方鸿渐看唐小姐不笑的时候,脸上还依恋着笑意,像音乐停止后袅袅空中的余音。许多女人会笑得这样甜;但她们的笑容只是面部肌肉软操,仿佛有所教练在喊口令:“一!”忽然满脸堆笑,“二!”忽然笑不知去向,只余个空脸,像电影开映前的布幕。(钱钟书《围城》)
  • Fang Hung-chien noticed that the trace of a smile lingered on Miss Tang’s face when she was not smiling, like the last few notes that float in the air after the music has ceased. Many women can smile just as sweetly, but their smile is only facial muscle calisthenics, as if a drillmaster were barking the order, “One!”and suddenly the whole face would be wreathed in smiles, then“Two !”and just as suddenly the smile would vanish, leaving a face as blank as the screen in a movie theater before the movie starts. (Kelly, 1979:52)
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6.2 委婉语
  • 委婉语的翻译困难:不同语言中的委婉语都与该语言的文化有密不可分的关系,因此不同语言的委婉语在形式、内容、效果上存在不可避免的冲突,影响表达效果。
    • 含义、意图越明显,委婉程度越低
  • 委婉语的翻译原则:
    • 必须保持指称义跟原文一致
    • 即使降低了表达效果,无法充分传递说写者的委婉意图,也不能偏离原文所指义的轨道
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见他生的聪明俊秀,也欲使他识几个字,不过假充养子,聊解膝下荒凉之叹。(曹雪芹《红楼梦》)见他生的聪明俊秀,也欲使他识几个字,不过假充养子,聊解膝下荒凉之叹。(曹雪芹《红楼梦》)
  • And because she was as intelligent as she was pretty, they decided to give her a good education to make up for their lack of a son and help them forget their loss. (杨宪益、戴乃迭译)
  • 虽然应名来上学,亦不过虚掩眼目而已,仍是斗鸡走狗,赏花阅柳为事。(曹雪芹《红楼梦》)
  • He attended the school only as a blind for his visit to cock-fights, dog-races and brothels.
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6.3 排比
  • 借助平行铺排的结构增强语势
    • 节奏感
    • 形式美
    • 音律美
  • 排比的翻译原则:
    • 直译
      • 含重复成分的:基本保留原文的形式美和音律美,再现的重复突出强调的效果
      • 不含重复成分的:既可保留原文的结构,又不需担心重复问题
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延安的歌声是黑夜的火把, 雪天的煤炭,大旱的甘霖。 (吴伯箫《歌声》)
  • Songs of Yan’an are torches in the dark night, charcoal fire in the snowy weather, and timely rainfall in a severe drought.
  • 这是革命的春天,这是人民的春天,这是科学的春天!
  • This is the springtime for the revolution, this is the springtime for the people, this is the springtime for science!(冯庆华《实用翻译教程》)
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6.4 对偶
  • 上下句字数相等,平仄相对
    • 意义美
    • 结构美
    • 音韵美
  • 对偶的翻译原则:
    • 尽可能的再现原文的意美、形美和音美
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墙上芦苇,头重脚轻根底浅;山间竹笋,嘴尖皮厚腹中空。墙上芦苇,头重脚轻根底浅;山间竹笋,嘴尖皮厚腹中空。
  • The reed growing on the wall ---- top-heavy, thin-stemmed and shallow of root; The bamboo shoot in the hills ---- sharp-tongued, thick-skinned and hollow inside.
  • 假作真时真亦假,无为有处有还无。(曹雪芹《红楼梦》)
  • When false is taken for true, true becomes false; If non-being turns into being, being becomes non-being.(杨宪益、戴乃迭译)
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