Unit 16 comprehensive abilities through comparative studies
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Unit 16 Comprehensive Abilities through Comparative Studies. By PYSH. 1. 汉英语言类型对比 2. 汉英语义对比 3. 汉英句法对比 4. 汉英语体风格对比 5. 汉英语篇衔接对比 6. 汉英修辞对比 . 1. 汉英语言类型对比. I. Comparative Studies of Chinese & English at Macroscopic Levels. 汉语 Analytic language 语法关系主要不是通过词本身的形态来表达,而是通过虚词、词序等手段来表达。

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Unit 16 Comprehensive Abilities through Comparative Studies

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Unit 16Comprehensive Abilities through Comparative Studies


  • 1.

  • 2.

  • 3.

  • 4.

  • 5.

  • 6.


I. Comparative Studies of Chinese & English at Macroscopic Levels

  • Analytic language

  • Synthetic Language

  • Few follow the advice of Isabella Beeton, the greatest British cook in the 19th century, who decreed in an early edition of her book that a good meal, if enjoyed and digested, gives the support necessary for the mornings work.

  • When he has taken his exercise and is drinking his tea or his beer, and lighting his pipeGeorge Santayana, The Weather in His Soul

  • 1.1 Parataxis & Hypotaxis

  • 1.2 Concrete & Abstract

  • 1.3 Dynamic & Static

1.1 Parataxis & Hypotaxis

  • I happened to be present when they were having a fight.

  • With some difficulty I brought her round to my way of thinking.

  • Leaning down to hear the little girl, the barber listened to her about the style she wanted.

  • It is not that the wine intoxicates the drinker but that the drinker gets himself drunk.

  • It is not the wine that intoxicates the drinker but the drinker who gets himself drunk

  • You have little cause to make excessive demands from others and make yourself disappointed in return.

1.2 Concrete & Abstract

  • He gave up all the hope when the appearance of a distant sail raised his hope of rescue.

  • It seems that there is a growing acceptance by the old generation of their children and their grandchildrens increasing interest in pop music.

1.3 Dynamic & Static

  • I offered him a cup of tea.

  • He walked around the house with a gun.

  • The people paraded in the street, flowers and banners in their hands.

  • To translate ideals into reality needs hard work.

  • The best way to solve the problem is to conduct investigations.

II. Practical Abilities Attained from Translation Studies and Criticism

The mastery of a foreign language is a long-term task that entails constant efforts. So is translation. A conscientious translator should learn to develop and enhance various abilities, among others, language sensibility, contextual analysis, logical thinking, etc. One of the effective ways of ability development is to compare translated versions and the originals with a critical eye, so as to develop good taste and acquire a keen sense of distinguishing right from wrong.

() P.218-224

Language Sensibility

  • Language sensibility here means a good understanding of a given word or phrase. ()

  • Examples are shown from P.218-220.

2. Contextual Analysis

  • As was mentioned in Unit 2, context plays an indispensable role in translation, and each word, when used in a new context, is a new word. ()

  • For example: P.220-222

3. Logical Thinking (1)

  • Logical thinking is another inseparable ability in the process of translation. More often than not, when we focus on our attention literal meaning of some given words and try to copy existing sentence patterns, we are prone to commit logical fallacies. ()

3. Logical Thinking (2)

  • P.222-224

Reflections and Practice

  • I. Discuss the following questions (P. 224).

  • II. Compare the different Chinese versions with original English and then comment on them (P. 224-226).

  • Version A()Version B()Version C()


hill, mountain

hen,chick, rooster

green, blue


hare, rabbit

mouse, rat







  • I was born in the Chinese lunar year of the rabbit.

  • Mother's younger brother has taken the vase away from the table.

  • 2.1 referential meaning

  • 2.2 linguistic meaning

  • 2.3 pragmatic meaning


  • When you know a thing, to hold that you know it, and when you do not know a thing, to allowthat you do not know it this is knowledge.James Legge

  • The custom in Nanjing is for all brides to invitegood luck by going to the kitchen on the third day and cooking a fish, which stands for fortune.


  • As rainbow clouds oer (over) darkened door, red petals shower, on jadeite branch is left the trace of fallen flower.

  • Taking-over turns out to be loot-taking.


  • Lady Dowagerthe mother of Jia She and Jia Zheng, who now introduced the family one by one. This, she said, is your elder uncles wife. This is your second uncles wife. This is the wife of your late Cousin Zhu. (

  • Grandmother Jia now introduced those present. This is your elder uncles wife, Aunt Xing. This is your Uncle Zhengs wife, Aunt Wang. This is Li Wan, the wife of your Cousin Zhu, who died.David Hawkes

  • ,

  • She went away with dissatisfaction.

  • Fend off one danger only to fall prey to another.

  • He was suspicious of her behavior.

  • Her behavior aroused his suspicion.

  • He suspected her behavior.


    • conjunction

  • Amidst the feverish bustling, there appeared on the stage a girl about eighteen or nineteen years old, dressed up just like the former. Her face was shaped like melon-seed. Her beauty was above the average woman-charming but not coquettish, and a clarity of complexion but not coldness.

  • 3.1

  • 3.2 --

  • 3.3

  • 3.4

  • 3.5

  • 3.6

  • 3.7


    • SV

    • SVO

    • SVOO

    • SVOC

    • SVC

  • [+]

  • That girl is very pretty. [SVC]

  • [+]

  • Lao She was from Beijing. [SVC]

  • [+]

  • The flower is white.[SVC]

  • 1958[+]

  • The reservoir was built in 1958. [SV(passive)]

  • [++]

  • He broke the glass.[SVO]

  • [+++]

  • Mr. Li teaches us geography.[SVOO]

  • [++/+()]

  • He asked me to post the letter.[SVOC]

  • [ ()++]

  • A bright round moon hangs in the sky.[SV]


  • The leaves turned brown.

  • It seems the weather is changing.

  • I was in Beijing at the time.

  • Who is it? It's me.

  • It won't do!

3.2 --

  • Absorbed in his walking, Old Shuan was startled when he saw the crossroad lying distantly ahead of him. He walked back a few steps to stand under the eaves of a shop in front of its closed door.


  • They say the momentum () of history was ever thus: the empire, long divided, must unite; long united, must divide.

  • They must stop all their provocations () at once, which create tensions.


  • There came Aunt Wang who dwelt at the eastern end of the village, and also came the villagers who had been deceived.

  • He worked hard with a computer in the lab for ten months in order to complete a project last year.


  • This view, represented by Chen Duxiu, was that

  • We have won one victory after another for our cause.

  • Balmy spring winds returned to bring new life to this historic city. The nightmarish sufferings and humiliations of the past were left behind once and for all. The citizens of Nanjing have been working hard to give this age-old town a new appearance. Especially for the past thirty years, the countrys reform and opening-up policy has infused new vigor into this beautiful and famous city. Newly built industries, all these and more added charm and vitality to this modern metropolis, which retains the ambiance and features of an ancient capital.


  • Parallelism

  • There is always something that can inspire you or motivate you. There is always something that can bring you joy or sorrow. There is always something that can get you impacted and set you thinking. Can it be anything but poetry?


    • open beginning

    • contracting ending closed ending

  • Combine the following sentences:

    • This is the egg that the boy hatched

    • This is the rat that stole the egg

    • This is the cat that caught the rat

    • This is the dog that bit the cat

    • This is the boy that chased the dog

  • This is the boy that chased the dog that bit the cat that caught the rat that stole the egg that the boy hatched.

  • 1After chatting for a time with the nun, Mrs. Chou went on to His-fengs quarters. She walked through the passage, past Li Wans back window, and skirting the west wall entered His-fengs compound by the west side-gate.

  • 2After gossiping a bit longer with Sapient, Zou Ruis wife made her way to Xi-fengs quarters. To get there she had to go down a passage-way between two walls, under the windows at the back of Li Wans apartments, along the foot of an ornamental wall, and through a gateway in the western corner of the compound.


  • tone language

  • stress language


  • He had no parents or brothers, no relatives at all; the only friend he had was this ancient city.

  • It will make you strong and healthy and keep you out of harm's way.


  • He was to wash [ ] and paint tables.

  • My advice is that you should try to avoid such rhymes as you would [ ] a pestilence.

  • ......

  • What a splendid idea! The United States supplies the money and [ ] guns and Chiang Kai-shek [ ] the men.

  • ......

  • But she bore all this with fortitude, never submitting, pleading for mercy or weeping...


  • 5.1

    • reference

  • 5.2

  • 5.3


  • reference

    • (anaphoric reference)

    • (cataphoric reference)

  • Xie Jing folded up the diagram and said, Now get moving. Ill paste this up here and you can have a look at it during the midday break.

  • When it (the car) was three or four meters away from the garage, its door automatically opened as if it recognized its own master.

  • Kong Yiji was the only long-gowned customer who used to drink his wine standing. A big, pallid man whose wrinkled face often bore scars, he had a large, unkempt and grizzled beard. And although he wore a long gown it was dirty and tattered. It had not by the look of it been washed or mended for ten years or more. He used so many archaisms in his speech that half of it was barely intelligible.


  • Just what I said. But Baoyu insisted that the plate looked best with the fresh leeches.


  • A man clad entirely in black stood before him, his eyes like daggers, making Old Shuan shrink to half his normal size.

  • On reaching Pear Fragrance Court, Baoyu went first to see Aunt Xue, whom he found distributing sewing to her maids. He paid his respects to his aunt, who caught him in her arms and hugged him.


  • 6.1

  • 6.2

  • 6.3

  • 6.4


  • :()

  • Fang Hung-chien noticed that the trace of a smile lingered on Miss Tangs face when she was not smiling, like the last few notes that float in the air after the music has ceased. Many women can smile just as sweetly, but their smile is only facial muscle calisthenics, as if a drillmaster were barking the order, One!and suddenly the whole face would be wreathed in smiles, thenTwo !and just as suddenly the smile would vanish, leaving a face as blank as the screen in a movie theater before the movie starts. (Kelly, 1979:52)


  • And because she was as intelligent as she was pretty, they decided to give her a good education to make up for their lack of a son and help them forget their loss.

  • He attended the school only as a blind for his visit to cock-fights, dog-races and brothels.


  • Songs of Yanan are torches in the dark night, charcoal fire in the snowy weather, and timely rainfall in a severe drought.

  • This is the springtime for the revolution, this is the springtime for the people, this is the springtime for science!


  • The reed growing on the wall ---- top-heavy, thin-stemmed and shallow of root; The bamboo shoot in the hills ---- sharp-tongued, thick-skinned and hollow inside.

  • When false is taken for true, true becomes false; If non-being turns into being, being becomes non-being.

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