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The Postwar Years at Home (1945-1960). Section 1 The Postwar Economy PW years, US embarks on period of economic expansion. Per Capita income increase $1,223 per year to $2,219. c. Corp exp accompanied economic growth. Conglomerates develop to protect from downturns.

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slide2
Section 1 The Postwar Economy
  • PW years, US embarks on period of economic expansion.
  • Per Capita income increase

$1,223 per year to $2,219.

c. Corp exp accompanied economic growth.

slide3
Conglomerates develop to protect from downturns.
  • Franchising also begins w/ Ray Kroc and McDonald’s.
  • Other types of business also adopt the franchise method throughout the 50’s.
slide4
Technology Transforms Life
  • Tech aimed at saving consumers time and money

Ex. Dishwashers, vacuums, lawnmowers, etc.

B. TV popularity grows.

slide5
Advances in Medicine
  • Vaccine for Polio developed by Dr. Jonas Salk.
  • Advances in anti-bacterial med such as penicillin.
  • WWII docs lead to adv surgical techniques.
slide6
Change in the Workforce
  • After war machines performed many of previous jobs.
  • Led to decline in blue-collar worker.
  • Many soldiers w/ new degrees gravitate to WC work.
slide7
Suburbs and Highways
  • Baby boom of 1940’s leads to population growth.
  • Growing families look to retreat from the cities.
  • GI Bill of Rights made this possible.
slide8
Developer William Levitt makes housing possible.
  • Mass-produces houses, built in weeks rather than months.

Ex. Long Island 17,000 homes

Bucks County PA-16,000

slide9
Cars and Highways
  • Stores from cities follow their customers.
  • Out of reach of public trans they need cars.
  • Led to explosion in auto industry.
slide10
Growth in car industry leads to need for better roads.
  • 1956 Interstate Highway Act leads to est of interstate highway system.
slide11
Growth of Consumer Credit

A. Lending agencies pick up on the credit card idea.

B. American’s use credit cards to purchase items considered “needs”

Ex. Washing machines, TV, vacuums.

slide12
Section 2 Mood of the 1950’s

Comfort and Security

  • Americans no longer cherish individuality now value conformity.
slide13
Men’s and Women’s Roles
  • Roles were clearly defined in the 1950’s.
  • Men were to get educated, get a job, and support/take care of a family and home.
  • Lived in a public sphere, away from home.
slide14
Women were to play a supporting role for their husband.
  • Keep house, cook meals, and raise children.
slide15
Youth culture
  • Often referred to as the ‘Silent Generation’
  • Economy allowed more young to stay in school.
  • Leisure time leads to young enjoying more entertainment.
slide16
Advertisements begin to target teens in the 1950’s.
  • Create a sense of conformity in style.
  • Rate of teenage brides increase to half of all brides by 1954.
slide17
Resurgence in Religion
  • By 1950’s found renewed interest in religion.
  • 1954 “under God” added to pledge and “In God We Trust” on currency.
slide18
Challenges to Conformity
  • Such conformity made differences noticeable.
  • Not all Americans fit into the exact mold.
slide19
Women At Work
  • Many women did not want to give up jobs filled during WWII.
  • In 1950 only 24% of married women had jobs.
slide20
Most women’s jobs were as secretaries, teachers, and nurses.
  • 1963—Betty Friedan published The Feminine Mystique.
slide21
Youthful Rebellions
  • Many young rejected values of parents. Led to isolation.
  • Reflected in movies and books

Ex. Rebel Without A Cause

Catcher in the Rye

slide22
Moondog Rock and Roll party draws large teen audience.
  • Played black rhythm and blues music.
  • Became known as Rock and Roll.
slide23
Teens rushed to buy their favorite records.

Black artists—Chuck Berry, Little Richard, Domino Fats

White artists—Jerry Lewis and Buddy Holly.

slide24
One of best known was Elvis Presley.
  • Flamboyant style attracted large following and int’l spread.
  • Influence later artist like The Beatles.
slide25
Many adults feared a rise in immorality.
  • This had a lot of to do with race.
slide26
Beat Generation (Beatniks)
  • Stressed need for release from money and property.
  • Shocked people with openness towards sex and illegal drugs.
slide27
Jack Kerouac often referred to as the voice of the movement through his novels

Ex. “On The Road”

slide28
Section 3

Domestic Politics and Policy

Truman’s Domestic Policies

  • 1st priority was reconversion of the economy.
  • Men wanted rewards for their sacrifices—now.
slide29
Workers demanded wage increases—1946 4.6 million workers go on strike.
  • Congress took action to limit striking workers.
  • Taft-Hartley Act—president could call 80 day cool off to industries of national interest.
slide30
Truman’s Fair Deal
  • Truman extended upon FDR’s New Deal.
  • Worked to secure economic justice for all citizens.
  • Much opposition to this by Conservatives in Congress.
slide31
By 1946 mid-terms Truman lost most support.

Ex. Support polls fell from 87% to 32%.

E. Republican Party worked hard to block Truman’s liberal goals.

slide32
Truman on Civil Rights
  • Recognized as president he had to take action on CR.
  • 1946 met w/ AA leader to discuss goals.
  • Congress refused to address concerns.
slide33
The Election of 1948
  • Truman had little reason to expect victory in 1948.
  • Support was diminishing even within his own party.
  • Both Southern and liberal Democrats give up support.
slide34
Opponent was Thomas Dewey, gov. of NY.
  • Truman campaigned mainly against the Republican Party not Dewey.
  • Truman won an astounding upset—and Democrat control of Congress.
slide35
Longtime Dem control over Washington frustrates Republicans.
  • Push for Amend limiting terms of a president.
  • Led to adoption of 22nd Amend in 1951. Limiting terms to 2.
slide36
Eisenhower and the Republican Approach
  • Eisenhower had a lot of public support from his role as Allied Commander in WWII.
slide37
B. Eisenhower promised to end Korean War, and strong approach to Communism.

K1 C2- Korea, Communism, Corruption.

c. His VP mate hammered on corruption in government, CA senator Richard Nixon.

slide38
Nixon’s Checkers Speech
  • Although popular Eisenhower’s campaign hit a snag.
  • Newspapers accused Nixon of having a secret fund.
  • Cries arose to dump Nixon from the ticket.
slide39
Nixon speaks on nat’l TV, about the charges.
  • A disaster turns into a public relations success.
  • Ike and Nixon win 55% of pop vote, and gain a Republican controlled Congress.
slide40
Modern Republicanism
  • Ike intended to be: “Conservative when it comes to money; liberal when it comes to human beings.”
  • Like traditional Republicans Ike favored big business.
slide42
Meeting the Technology Challenge
  • SU launched Sputnik in 1957 led to fear of Americans
  • 1958 US created NASA (Nat’l Aeronautics and Space Adm)
slide43
C. The same year Congress also passed the National Defense Education Act.
  • Designed to improve math and science among students.
  • Keep up with Soviet Union.
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