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9.00 Introduction to Psychology. Talia Konkle 21 Feb 07. Pop Quiz. The Plan for today :. Review: Blitzkrieg Neuroanatomy Neuroscience Methods A little on TMS. :15. Discussion: Neuroscience of Lies. :40. :50. Logistics: Paper Guidelines. Timekeeper?. 01-10. W. W. Norton. Synapse.

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9.00 Introduction to Psychology

Talia Konkle

21 Feb 07



The Plan for today :

Review:

Blitzkrieg Neuroanatomy

Neuroscience Methods

A little on TMS

:15

Discussion:

Neuroscience of Lies

:40

:50

Logistics:

Paper Guidelines

Timekeeper?


01 10
01-10

W. W. Norton



03 09
03-09

W. W. Norton


Brodmann, K., Vergleichende Lokalisationslehre der Grosshirnrinde in ihren Prinzipien dargestellt auf Grund des Zellenbaues. Leipzig: J.A. Barth, 1909.


02 07
02-07 Grosshirnrinde in ihren

W. W. Norton


  • Broca’s Area: Grosshirnrinde in ihren

  • language processing

  • speech production and comprehension

  • Broca’s aphasia:

  • results from damage to Broca’s Area (e.g., lesions)

  • unable to create grammatically-complex sentences

  • speech described as telegraphic, contains content words only

  • comprehension is relatively normal


05 04
05-04 Grosshirnrinde in ihren

W. W. Norton


10 09
10-09 Grosshirnrinde in ihren

W. W. Norton


Stroop effect
Stroop Effect Grosshirnrinde in ihren

Word Set #1


Question

… why? Grosshirnrinde in ihren

Methods Section

Question:

How do we study the brain?


The goal
THE GOAL Grosshirnrinde in ihren

Hey ___, you took brain

classes at MIT. How do

they get these brain areas

lighting up? What do you make of it?


Question1
Question: Grosshirnrinde in ihren

How do we study the brain?

What methods can we use to figure out what the role of a certain brain area is?


Answers
Answers: Grosshirnrinde in ihren

eeg

lesions

fmri

single cell recording

stimulation


fmri eeg lesion single-cell stimulation Grosshirnrinde in ihren

Causality:

Direct

Indirect

lesions

fmri

single cell recording

eeg

stimulation


Precision Grosshirnrinde in ihren

fmri eeg lesion single-cell stimulation

fmri

single cell recording

Good Spatial

Good Temporal

stimulation

lesions

eeg

stimulation


fmri eeg lesion single-cell stimulation Grosshirnrinde in ihren

fmri

single cell recording

Invasive

Non Invasive

lesions

stimulation

eeg

stimulation


Begin tms
// Begin TMS // Grosshirnrinde in ihren


T Grosshirnrinde in ihren ranscranial Magnetic Stimulation…

If you want to hear about brain zapping, you’ve come to the right place

and if you don’t… too bad


What is it and how does it work? Grosshirnrinde in ihren


What is it and how does it work? Grosshirnrinde in ihren

Electromagnetism

Coil Types

Spatial and Temporal Resolution

Neuron Stimulation… proof by motor cortex


Will it hurt me? Grosshirnrinde in ihren

  • Myths of TMS:

  • It will give me a seizure

  • It will damage my brain at high intensities

  • The effects are permanent

    • Animal studies show no cell death even with high stimulation rates.


What’s it good for? Grosshirnrinde in ihren

Applications of TMS

Experimental

Clinical

- Integrity of motorpathways

- Treatment of depression

Single Pulse

Repetitive

- Working memory disruptions

- Sequence learning

  • Motor System probe

- Virtual Scotoma

- Blind Braille readers


Mythical applications of tms
Mythical Applications of TMS Grosshirnrinde in ihren

Induce creativity (Australian report)

“I looked down at my work. The first felines were boxy and stiffly unconvincing. But after I had been subjected to about 10 minutes of transcranial magnetic stimulation, their tails had grown more vibrant, more nervous; their faces were personable and convincing. They were evenbeginning to wear clever expressions. I could hardly recognize them as my own drawings, though I had watched myself render each one, in all its loving detail. Somehow over the courseof a very few minutes, and with no additional instruction, I had gone from an incompetent draftsman to a very impressive artist of the feline form.As remarkable as the cat-drawing lesson was, it was just a hint of (Allan) Snyder's work and its implications for the study of cognition. He has used TMS dozens of times on university students, measuring its effect on their ability to draw, to proofread and to perform difficult mathematicalfunctions like identifying prime numbers by sight. Hooked up to the machine, 40 percent of test subjects exhibited extraordinary, and newfound, mental skills. That Snyder was able to induce these remarkable feats in a controlled, repeatable experiment is more than just a greatparty trick; it's a breakthrough that may lead to a revolution in the way we understand the limits of our own intelligence -- and the functioning of the human brain in general.”

From the New York Times: Savant for a Day, June 22, 2003, By LAWRENCE OSBORNE


What’s it good for? Grosshirnrinde in ihren

Applications of TMS

Experimental

Clinical

- Integrity of motor pathways

- Treatment of depression

Single Pulse

Repetitive

Hope that it might be substitute for electroconvulsive therapy?

- Working memory disruptions

- Sequence learning

  • Motor System probe

- Virtual Scotoma

- Reading Braille


What’s it good for? Grosshirnrinde in ihren

Applications of TMS

Experimental

Clinical

- Integrity of motor pathways

- Treatment of depression

Single Pulse

Repetitive

- Working memory disruptions

- Sequence learning

  • Motor System probe

- Virtual Scotoma

- Reading Braille


What’s it good for? Grosshirnrinde in ihren

Applications of TMS

Experimental

Clinical

- Integrity of motor pathways

- Treatment of depression

Single Pulse

Repetitive

- Working memory disruptions

- Sequence learning

  • Motor System probe

- Virtual Scotoma

- Reading Braille


Virtual Scotoma Grosshirnrinde in ihren


What’s it good for? Grosshirnrinde in ihren

Applications of TMS

Experimental

Clinical

- Integrity of motor pathways

- Treatment of depression

Single Pulse

Repetitive

- Working memory disruptions

- Sequence learning

  • Motor System probe

- Virtual Scotoma

- Reading Braille


PET activation in blind individuals when reading Braille. Grosshirnrinde in ihren

PET activation in sighted individuals when doing tactile discrimination task.


Assessing functional relevance: TMS during tactile exploration

Blind individuals doing identification task with Braille

Sighted individuals doing identification task with embossed Roman letters


What’s it good for? exploration

Applications of TMS

Experimental

Clinical

- Integrity of motor pathways

- Treatment of depression

Single Pulse

Repetitive

- Working memory disruptions

- Sequence learning

  • Motor System probe

- Virtual Scotoma

- Reading Braille



How do you zap the right place? exploration

Stereotaxic localization



for the economically minded: exploration How much does this cost?

Neopulse 40K

Magstim 30 K

Polaris & Brainsight 60 K

EMG setup 10 K


End tms
// End TMS // exploration


Begin ethics
// Begin Ethics // exploration


Question2
Question: exploration

Should we use neuroimaging results in court (e.g. lie detector technology)

read story…


Question3
Question: exploration

Should we use neuroimaging to decide about taking people off life-support?


Extras
Extras… exploration


Logistics
LOGISTICS exploration

Papers Due 1 week from today in section

- BRING 2 COPIES!!


Motor Systems Probe: exploration

Brain-based poloygraph?

Pre-Question Post-Question

Simple (yes/no): Are you a man?

Complex: How old are you?

Two effects:

Main effect (lie>truth, pre and post)

Interaction


Mythical applications of tms1
Mythical Applications of TMS exploration

Induce religious experience (Canadian report)

Cook, CM and Persinger, MA Percept Mot Skills. 1997 85):683-93. Experimental induction of the "sensed presence" in normal subjects and an exceptional subject.9 of the 15 volunteers who were exposed to successive 3-min. durations of bursts of different types of weak (1 microT) complex magnetic fields or sham-fields reported the sense of a presence as indicated by a button press at the time of the experience… An exceptional subject who had a history of experiencing within his upper left peripheral visual field "flashing images" concerning the health and history of people [when handling their photographs] was also exposed to the burst sequences. Numbers of button presses associated with the experiences of a mystical presence, to whom the subject attributed his capacity, increased when the complex magnetic fields were applied without the subject's knowledge. The results support the hypothesis that the sense of a presence, which may be the common phenomenological base from which experiences of gods, spirits, angels, and other entities are derived, is a right hemispheric homologue of the left hemispheric sense of self.


What’s it good for? exploration

Applications of TMS

Experimental

Clinical

- Integrity of motor pathways

- Treatment of depression

Single Pulse

Repetitive

- Working memory disruptions

- Sequence learning

  • Motor System probe

- Virtual Scotoma

- Blind Braille readers


Assessment of motor pathways in multiple sclerosis

Motor Systems Probe: exploration

Assessment of Motor Pathways in Multiple Sclerosis

TMS stimulation over ulnar nerve

TMS stimulation at C-7 level of spinal cord

TMS stimulation over motor cortex

TMS stimulation over ulnar nerve

TMS stimulation at C-7 level of spinal cord

TMS stimulation over motor cortex


Briefly, what’s a MEP? … exploration

Brain-based polygraph?


Motor Systems Probe: exploration

Does action observation engage motor system? (Aziz-Zadeh et al., 2002)

Participant watches a movie of person moving either the left or right index finger.


High frequency (3 Hz) stimulation exploration

Disruption of sequence production

SMA Stimulation

Motor Cortex Stimulation


Range over which errors occurred after TMS exploration

SMA: “I forgot where I was in the sequence”

MC: “My hand got stuck.”


Conformity obedience milgram study
CONFORMITY & OBEDIENCE: explorationMILGRAM STUDY

Newspaper ad - study of memory - Yale

Two people

Researcher - here to help science improve learning and memory through punishmnet

One “teacher” and one “learner” - a set of word pairs to memorize

Teacher gives word, learner responds

Correct response - “good” or “that’s right”

Incorrect response - - press button that delivers shock


Conformity obedience milgram study1
CONFORMITY & OBEDIENCE: explorationMILGRAM STUDY

Shock Generator

15 volts - 15 volts steps - 30 switches

150 volts - “STRONG SHOCK”

255 volts - “INTENSE SHOCK”

375 volts - “DANGER, SEVERE SHOCK”

435 volts - “XXX”

450 volts - “XXX”


Conformity obedience milgram study2
CONFORMITY & OBEDIENCE: explorationMILGRAM STUDY

Initially,learner does well

Then errors

Learner complains that shocks are starting to hurt

Screams

Says that he or she does not want to continue

Hesitate, question researcher

Learner complains about heart condition

More errors - teacher pleads to concentrate

“You have no right to keep me here!”

“I refuse to answer any more! You can’t hold me here! My hearts bothering me!”

At 300 volts, no more response

Experimenter says that after 5 sec, it is a wrong answer


Conformity obedience milgram study3
CONFORMITY & OBEDIENCE: explorationMILGRAM STUDY

Shock Generator

15 volts - 15 volts steps - 30 switches

150 volts - “STRONG SHOCK”

255 volts - “INTENSE SCOCK”

375 volts - “DANGER, SEVERE SHOCK”

435 volts - “XXX”

450 volts - “XXX”

All the way to 450?


Conformity obedience milgram study4
CONFORMITY & OBEDIENCE: explorationMILGRAM STUDY

Shock Generator

15 volts - 15 volts steps - 30 switches

150 volts - “STRONG SHOCK”

255 volts - “INTENSE SCOCK”

375 volts - “DANGER, SEVERE SHOCK”

435 volts - “XXX”

450 volts - “XXX”

All the way to 450? - 65%


Imagery specific activations
Imagery-Specific Activations exploration

Patient and group of 12 healthy volunteers imagined playing tennis or moving around a house

Owen et al., Science, 2006


E exploration

J

6

7

If a card has a vowel on one side, then it has an even number on the other side.


E exploration

J

6

7

If a card has a vowel on one side, then it has an even number on the other side.

Correct answer - E & 7 (10%)Common answers - E, E & 6


Confirmation bias
Confirmation bias exploration

We look for evidence that confirms what we believe, and overlook evidence that could disconfirm what we believe.

E - see an even number - confirm

6 - not even needed, but feels like it confirms

7 - would disconfirm - if there is a vowel on the other side


24 exploration

18

A different, but related example…

If you have a beer, you must be 21 or older.


E exploration

J

6

7

This is EXACTLY the same as the previous example!

24

18

If you have a beer (vowel) ---> you must be over 21 (even#)

P --> Q Check all p’s (all beers, all even numbers)

Not Q --> notP Check all NOT Q’s (underage, all odd numbers)

We’re Good At Finding Cheaters


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