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Lesson Objectives Draw electron dot formulas Ionic compounds Covalent compounds

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Lesson Objectives Draw electron dot formulas Ionic compounds Covalent compounds. Electron Dot Formulas. Bonding electrons – electrons used for bonding Single dots on a side of the symbol. Nonbonding pairs – electrons not used for bonding Paired dots on a side of the symbol.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1
Lesson Objectives
  • Draw electron dot formulas
    • Ionic compounds
    • Covalent compounds
  • Electron Dot Formulas
slide2
Bonding electrons – electrons used for bonding
    • Single dots on a side of the symbol
  • Nonbonding pairs – electrons not used for bonding
    • Paired dots on a side of the symbol
  • Bonding vs. Nonbonding Electrons

nonbonding pair

P

bonding e-

bonding e-

bonding e-

slide3
Noble gases have octets of electrons
  • Noble gases have the most stable electron configurations
    • Stable–electron arrangement that resists spontaneous change
  • Octet rule– atoms gain, lose, or share electrons to fill their valence shells with eight electrons and achieve stability
    • Hydrogen and helium are octet rule exceptions
      • Follow the duet rule
        • Highest energy shell only holds two electrons
  • The Octet Rule

Ex)

slide4
Valence Electrons and Bonding
  • Chemical bonds are created by the transfer or sharing of valence electrons
    • Covalent bonds are formed by electron sharing
    • Ionic bonds are formed by electron transfer
slide5

Ions form when electrons are lost or gained

  • Ionic charges are based on the number of electrons lost or gained
    • Losing or gaining electrons changes the ratio of positive particles (p+) to negative particles (e–) and causes an overall charge to form
  • Valence Electrons and Ion Formation

Ex)

Na lost 1 e– to become Na+

F gained 1 e– to become F-

10 e-

10 e-

11 p+

9 p+

+

+

+1 charge

-1 charge

slide6
Valence Electrons and Ion Formation
  • Generally, charge can be be determined by an ion’s group number
    • Metals lose valence electrons to form cations
    • Nonmetals gain valence electrons to form anions

1+

3+

2-

1-

3-

2+

slide7

Electron Dot Structures for Ions

  • Excess or deficit of electrons will be represented by
    • Number of electrons around the symbol
    • Charge outside the dot structure

Ex) Neutral calcium becomes a calcium ion

2+

Ca

Ex) Neutral sulfur becomes a sulfide ion

2-

S

slide8
Ionic compounds are held together by the attraction between oppositely charged ions
  • Ionic Electron Dot Formulas

Ex) Formation of KBr

Br –

Br

K

Transfer

K+

slide9
Ionic Electron Dot Formulas

Ex) Electron dot formula for Li2O

2-

O

O

Li+

Li+

Li

Li

+

+

slide10
Molecules and covalent compounds are held together by electron sharing
  • Covalent bonds are represented by lines drawn between atoms
  • Each line represents a pair of electrons that are shared between two atoms

Covalent Electron Dot Formulas

Ex) Br2

Br

Br

slide11
Draw structure for central atom
    • Central atom is usually the least electronegative
  • Draw structures for surrounding atoms
  • Check for octets
    • Consider exceptions
  • Connect bonding electrons between atoms

Covalent Electron Dot Formulas

Ex) NH3

N

H

H

H

slide12
Some compounds may require more than two electrons to be shared between two atoms to fill each atom’s octet
    • 4 shared electrons = double bond
    • 6 shared electrons = triple bond
  • Multiple Bonds
  • Ex) O2

O

O

  • Ex) N2

N

N

slide13
Covalent Electron Dot Formulas

Ex) Electron dot formula for the synthesis of water

2H2(g) + O2(g)  2H2O(l )

O

O

+

+

+

O

O

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

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