The nervous system
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The Nervous System. Regulation. The control and coordination of life activities All organisms use chemicals to regulate life activities Multicellular animals have NERVE CONTROL Allow for organisms to maintain HOMEOSTASIS. Stimulus:

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The Nervous System

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The nervous system

The Nervous System


Regulation

Regulation

  • The control and coordination of life activities

    • All organisms use chemicals to regulate life activities

    • Multicellular animals have NERVE CONTROL

    • Allow for organisms to maintain HOMEOSTASIS


The nervous system

  • Stimulus:

    • Any change in the external or internal environment that initiates a RESPONSE

  • Response:

    • A change in BEHAVIOR

  • Stimuli are detected by RECEPTORS

    • Sensitive to a particular type of stimulus

      • Ex. EyesLight, EarsSound

  • Effectors:

    • Organs that produce a response to a stimulus

      • Ex. Muscles and Glands


Neuron

Neuron

  • Specialized cells which are responsible for transmitting IMPULSES from one part of the body to another

  • Impulse:

    • Electrical and chemical changes that travel through neurons

    • Causes the release of NEUROTRANSMITTERS from terminal branches

    • **Neuron-Nerve-Ganglia-Brain

  • Made up of 4 main parts


Dendrites receptors

Dendrites(Receptors)

  • Cell branches that receive impulses from other neurons or from receptors


Cyton

Cyton

  • The cell body

    • Contains a nucleus


The nervous system

Axon

  • The branch of the cell that transmits impulses away from the cyton


Myelin sheath

Myelin Sheath

  • The fatty insulation covering produced by the Schwann cells.

  • Nodes of Ranvier – Area of no myelin

*Node of

Ranvier

* Schwann Cell

* Myelin


Terminal branches

Terminal Branches

  • Responsible for:

    • transmitting impulses to the dendrites of other neurons

    • Transmitting impulses to effectors


Synapses

Synapses

  • Junction between adjacent nerve cells

  • Some nerve cells have junctions with muscles or glands

    • Chemicals released stimulate contraction of the muscle, or secretion by the gland


Neurotransmitters

Neurotransmitters

  • Chemicals that are secreted by the terminal branch into the synapse between neurons

  • Carry impulses from one cell to the next

    • Ex. Acetylcholine and Noradrenaline


The nervous system

  • Amoeba – No true nervous system

  • Paramecium

    • System of FIBRILS that transmit impulses to cilia

      • Regulates LOCOMOTION and INGESTION

  • Some species of Protozoans have EYESPOTS

    • Receive stimuli and generate impulses to produce a response

  • Hydra

    • Contain specialized cells similar to neurons, but do not have a central nervous system

    • Cells connect to form a NERVE NET

      • Impulses travel in any direction


  • The nervous system

    • Earthworm

      • Has neurons organized into distinct structures and organs which form a TRUE NERVOUS SYSTEM

        • Brain:

          • Mass of ganglia located on the dorsal side of the worm, near the head

        • Ventral Nerve Cord

          • Main nerve

          • Connected to the brain and runs along the length of the animal on the ventral side (Belly)

        • Nerve Branches

          • Series of smaller nerves that branch to all parts of organism

          • Impulses are generated by receptors and travel through the nerves to reach muscles and glands


    The nervous system

    • Grasshopper

      • Similar nervous system to earthworm

      • Has SENSORY ORGANS

        • Eyes

        • Tympanum- Detects sound

        • Antennae- Sense and Touch


    The nervous system

    A Lateral viewB Dorsal view1 Antenna2 Brain (cerebral ganglion)3 Compound eye4 Tympanum5 Ganglion6 Beginning of the Dorsal Nerve Cord7 Segmental nerves9 Ventral nerve cord


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