Kmt and the restoration of the nation
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KMT and the restoration of the Nation. Outline : The Korean War  fight back to the Mainland ? The US economic support to the ROC KMT’s reform Chiang Ching-kuo and the China Youth Corps Who’s army? The nation’s or the Chiang family’s. The Korean War  fight back to the Mainland ?.

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KMT and the restoration of the Nation

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KMT and the restoration of the Nation

  • Outline:

    • The Korean War  fight back to the Mainland?

    • The US economic support to the ROC

    • KMT’s reform

    • Chiang Ching-kuo and the China Youth Corps

    • Who’s army? The nation’s or the Chiang family’s

The Korean War  fight back to the Mainland?

  • The Korean War broke out in June 1950. Chiang Kai-shek intended to fight back to the Mainland by supporting South Korea.

  • After the Chinese Communist Party joined the war, General MacArthur and some pro-Chiang American senators suggested to accept the ROC’s military support.

  • President Truman denied this proposal, as he feared that this would trigger a new war on Mainland China.

  • In April 1951, President Truman removed General MacArthur from all his posts and duties. This crushed Chiang Kai-shek’s plan of recovering the Mainland.

  • On the other hand, the CCP directly clashed with the US in the Korean War. Anti-communism voices were high, while many pro-PRC American officials resigned.

  • Under this circumstance, the ROC became the only contactable “Chinese regime” for the US.

The US’s economic support to the ROC

  • The US economic support to the ROC began in the end of 1950, with significant amount of aid being given from 1951.

  • This aid enabled the KMT regime, which yet to recover from WWII and domestic turmoil, to stand up again in Taiwan.

  • The American’s purposes for giving the aid were:

    • To stabilize economy

    • To make Taiwan self-sufficient

    • To facilitate the US’s military activities in East Asia

  • The US’s economic aid lasted for 15 years (1950-1965), with a total of nearly 1.5 billion USD.

  • In average, the ROC received about 100 million USD a year, which wasequivalent to 1/10 of the ROC’s GDP at that time.

    p.s.: Perhaps some of you can do presentations on the issue of

    the Westerners’ economic and military support in Asian

    countries (e.g. The Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia)

KMT’s Reform

  • After retreating to Taiwan, Chiang Kai-shek was determined to thoroughly reorganize the party-state system.

  • The first thing was to rebuild his authority so that party members' loyalty and faith to him could be reconsolidated.

  • In August 1950, the KMT formed a Central Reform Committee. All members were trusted followers of Chiang Kai-shek and his son, Chiang Ching-kuo.

  • Faction leaders and many high-ranked figures, including son of the ROC’s founding father Dr. Sun Yat-sen, were excluded.

  • The KMT learned from Soviet Russia’s Leninist party-state structure, and set up party branches in the military, governmental offices, schools, all sorts of industrial and business unions, and even civil and cultural organizations.

  • In other words, the whole nation was tightly bound to and closely monitored by the KMT.

  • For the first time, Chiang Kai-shek gained a total control over the part (and consequently, the nation).

Chiang Ching-kuo and the China Youth Corps

  • Chiang Kai-shek reckoned that the KMT’s biggest failure on Mainland China was not be able to control the minds of the youth.

  • in October 1952, Chiang Ching-kuo established the China Youth Corps to promote “proper” and “patriotic” extracurricular activities.

  • Students at all level were “encouraged” (institutionally forced) to participate in CYC’s activities.

  • All students and youth aged between 16 and 25 were automatically classified as members of the CYC.

  • Those who refused to join the CYC would be dropped out from school.

  • Besides, Chiang Ching-kuo also decided to integrate the KMT and the ROC’s foundational doctrine - The Three Principles of the People - into school curriculum.

  • “The Three Principles of the People” was a required subject of the nationwide university entrance exam, and was also an obligatory course for all university freshmen.

  • The CYC had its own publishing service, issuing magazines and pamphlets to be displayed in all schools and public libraries.

Taking control of the military

  • Chiang Kai-shek felt that the KMT’s insufficiency in political education was the major reason for its military failure on the Mainland.

  • In March 1950, a “political bureau” headed by Chiang Ching-kuo was formed under the Ministry of Defense to ensure total political control over the military.

  • Orders issued by military officers at all levels must also be approved by corresponding political officers.

  • The five principles for the military were: doctrine, leader, nation, duty, and honor. “Leader” even came before nation.

  • The number of recruits into the KMT was one of political officers’ “KPI”.

  • All military servicemen, generals and soldiers alike, must receive mandatory political education on every Thursday.

  • Only KMT members were allowed to be instructors of political courses.

  • Many of the generals retreated to Taiwan had political ambitions. In order to prevent possible coup, many were forced to retire or stripped from post.

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