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Egoism vs. Altruism. The study of Morality requires that one addresses the dilemma of Psychological Egoism & Altruism as well as focus on Ethical Egoism & Altruism. What are Egoism & Altruism?. Altruism: Acting for the sake of others.

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Egoism vs altruism
Egoism vs. Altruism

The study of Morality requires that one addresses the dilemma of Psychological Egoism & Altruism as well as focus on EthicalEgoism & Altruism.


What are egoism altruism
What are Egoism & Altruism?

  • Altruism: Acting for the sake of others.

    • One may be altruistic to recognize obligations to other people.

    • One may be altruistic by making one’s interests as important as one’s own.

  • Egoism: Acting out of self-interest.

    • People act respectfully or kindly for their own advantage


What is the psychological perspective
What is the Psychological Perspective?

The Psychological perspective refers whether we are can only act primarily for our own self-interest or whether it is possible to act for the sake of others.

Based more on the question of what is in our natures

Do we naturally act for ourselves or for others?

Is it possible to act for others’ interests?


Ethical perspective
Ethical Perspective

Ethical Egoism: One ought to act selfishly

  • Ayn Rand’s “Virtue of Selfishness”

    Ethical Altruism: One ought to act for others’ sake

  • Joseph Butler’s “Critique of Ethical Egoism”


Ayn rand
Ayn Rand

  • Virtue of Selfishness: “Altruism permits no concept of a self-respecting, self-supporting man…altruism permits no view of men except as sacrificial animals.”

    • If an act is not in one’s interests, it denies self-respect

    • One must act for one’s self-interest


Story of lincoln the sow
Story of Lincoln & the Sow

  • Lincoln argues he saves the piglets after hearing the mother squealing.

    • Was his act one of egoism or altruism?

      • Lincoln claims he was acting to avoid feeling guilty

  • Goes back to the question of Psychological Egoism (is it possible to not act in self-interest)


Should we be egoists or altruists
Should we be Egoists or Altruists?

Psychology

  • Is it possible to act selflessly? If so, provide an example.

  • If it is not possible, respond to the 3 arguments of Joseph Butler in the textbook (pg. 254-255).

    Ethics

  • Can we create a principle (a moral obligation) to be Altruistic?

    • i.e.: One ought to act for others’ interest rather than self-interest because…

  • Can we create a principle (a moral obligation) to be Egocentric?

    • i.e.: One ought to act for self-interest rather than the interests of others because...


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