Chemistry 232
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Chemistry 232. Properties of Solutions. Concentration Terms. Dilute - not a lot of solute. Concentrated - a large amount of solute. Concentration can be expressed quantitatively is many ways: Molarity Molality Percentage Mole fraction. Molarity and Molality.

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Chemistry 232

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Chemistry 232

Chemistry 232

Properties of Solutions

Concentration terms

Concentration Terms

  • Dilute - not a lot of solute.

  • Concentrated - a large amount of solute.

  • Concentration can be expressed quantitatively is many ways:

    • Molarity

    • Molality

    • Percentage

    • Mole fraction

Molarity and molality

Molarity and Molality

  • The molarity is the number of moles of solute in 1 litre of solution.

    • M = moles of solute / V sol’n (litres)

  • The molality is the number of moles of solute in 1 kg of solvent.

    • M = moles of solute / kg solvent

  • Conversion between the two requires the solutions density.

Partial molar thermodynamic properties

Partial Molar Thermodynamic Properties

Define a partial molar thermodynamic property as

Euler’s Theorem

The chemical potential

The Chemical Potential

We define the chemical potential of a substance as

The wider significance of

The Wider Significance of 

Shows how all the extensive thermodynamic properties depend on system composition

Thermodynamics of mixing

Thermodynamics of Mixing

  • Spontaneous mixing of two or more substances to form solutions

  • Gibbs energy of the solution must be less than G(pure components)

The gibbs energy of mixing

The Gibbs Energy of Mixing

The enthalpy and entropy

The Enthalpy and Entropy

The ideal solution

The Ideal Solution







The volume and internal energy of mixing

The Volume and Internal Energy of Mixing

Ideal solution def n

Ideal Solution Def’n

For an ideal solution

Raoult s law

Raoult’s Law

Consider the following system

Raoult s law 2

Raoult’s Law #2

The chemical potential expressions

Raoult s law depression of vapour pressure

Raoult’s Law: Depression of Vapour pressure

VP of solution relates to VP of pure solvent


Solutions that obey Raoult’s law are called ideal solutions.

Raoult s law example

Raoult’s Law Example

The total vapour pressure and partial vapour pressures of an ideal binary mixture

Dependence of the vp on mole fractions of the components.

An ideal solution

An Ideal Solution

Benzene and toluene behave almost ideally

Follow Raoult’s Law over the entire composition range.

Henry s law

Henry’s Law

Henry’s law relates the vapour pressure of the solute above an ideally dilute solution to composition.

The ideal dilute solution

The Ideal Dilute Solution

  • Ideal Dilute Solution

    • Solvent obeys Raoult’s Law

    • Solute obeys Henry’s Law

Henry s law 2

Henry’s Law #2

The chemical potential expressions

  • JO(H)is the Henry’s law standard state.

  • It is the chemical potential of J in the vapour when PJ = kJ.

Henry s law 3

Henry’s Law #3

The Standard State Chemical potential for Henry’s Law

When the system is in equilibrium

The chemical potential expressions reduce to Henry’s Law

Henry s law in terms of molalities

Henry’s Law in terms of molalities

The Standard State Chemical potential for Henry’s Law

When the system is in equilibrium

The chemical potential expressions reduce to Henry’s Law in terms of molalities

Chemical potentials in terms of the molality

Chemical Potentials in terms of the Molality

The chemical potential expressions

oJ,m = chemical potential of the solute in an

ideal 1 molal solution

The gibbs duhem equation

The Gibbs-Duhem Equation

The Gibbs-Duhem gives us an interrelationship amongst all partial molar quantities in a mixture

Colligative properties

Colligative Properties

Colligative properties1

Colligative Properties

  • All colligative properties

    • Depend on the number and not the nature of the solute molecules

  • Due to reduction in chemical potential in solution vs. that of the pure solvent

    • Freezing point depression

    • Boiling Point Elevation

    • Osmotic Pressure

Boiling point elevation

Boiling Point Elevation

Examine the chemical potential expressions involved

Boiling point elevation 2

Boiling Point Elevation #2

The boiling point elevation

Freezing point depression

Freezing Point Depression

Examine the chemical potential expressions involved

Freezing point depression 2

Freezing Point Depression #2

Define the freezing point depression





  • The movement of water through a semi-permeable membrane from dilute side to concentrated side

    • the movement is such that the two sides might end up with the same concentration

  • Osmotic pressure: the pressure required to prevent this movement

Osmosis the thermodynamic formulation

Osmosis – The Thermodynamic Formulation

 - the osmotic pressure

Equilibrium is established across membrane under isothermal conditions

The final equation

The Final Equation

The osmotic pressure is related to the solutions molarity as follows



Isotonic: having the same osmotic pressure

Hypertonic: having a higher osmotic pressure

Hypotonic: having a lower osmotic pressure

Terminology 2

Terminology #2

Hemolysis: the process that ruptures a cell placed in a solution that is hypotonic to the cell’s fluid

Crenation: the opposite effect

The partial molar volume

The Partial Molar Volume

In a multicomponent system

Volume vs composition

Volume Vs. Composition

The partial molar volume of a substance

slope of the variation of the total sample volume plotted against composition.

PMV’s vary with solution composition

The pmv composition plot

The PMV-Composition Plot

The partial molar volumes of water and ethanol at 25C.

Note the position of the maxima and minima!!

Experimental determination of pmv s

Experimental Determination of PMV’s

Obtain the densities of systems as a function of composition

Inverse of density – specific volume of solution

Example with methanol

Example with Methanol.

Plot volumes vs. mole fraction of component A or B

Draw a tangent line to the plot of volume vs. mole fraction.

Where the tangent line intersects the axis – partial molar volume of the components at that composition

The solution volume vs composition

The Solution Volume vs. Composition

The mean molar volume

The Mean Molar Volume

Define the mean mixing molar volume as

V*J – the molar volume of the pure liquid

Vm = V/nT

The mean molar volume plot

The Mean Molar Volume Plot



Infinite dilution partial molar properties

Infinite Dilution Partial Molar Properties

The value of a partial molar thermodynamic property in the limit of zero volume is its infinite dilution value

E.g., for the volumes

The definition of the activity

The Definition of the Activity

For any real system, the chemical potential for the solute (or solvent) is given by

Activities of pure solids liquids

Activities of Pure Solids/Liquids

The chemical potential is essentially invariant with pressure for condensed phases

Pure solids and pure liquids

Pure Solids and Pure Liquids

or aJ = 1

For a pure solid or a pure liquid at standard to moderately high pressures

Activities in gaseous systems

Activities in Gaseous Systems

The chemical potential of a real gas is written in terms of its fugacity

Define the activity coefficient

Define the Activity Coefficient

The activity coefficient (J) relates the activity to the concentration terms of interest.

In gaseous systems, we relate the fugacity (or activity) to the ideal pressure of the gas via

Activities in solutions

Activities in Solutions

  • Two conventions

  • Convention I

    • Raoult’s Law is applied to both solute and solvent

  • Convention II

    • Raoult’s Law is applied to the solvent; Henry’s Law is applied to the solute

Convention i

Convention I

We substitute the activity of the solute and solvent into our expressions for Raoult’s Law

Convention i cont d

Convention I (cont’d)

Note – as XJ 1

JI  1 and PJ  PJid

Vapour pressure above real solutions is related to its liquid phase mole fraction and the activity coefficient

Convention ii

Convention II

The solvent is treated in the same manner as for Convention I

For the solute, substitute the solute activity into our Henry’s Law expression

Convention ii cont d

Convention II (cont’d)

Note – as XJ 0

JII  1 and PJ  PJid

Vapour pressure above real dilute solutions is related to its liquid phase mole fraction and activity coefficient

Convention ii molalities

Convention II - Molalities

Note – as mJ 0

J(m)  1 and aJ(m)  mJ

For the solute, we use the molality as our concentration scale

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