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Maximum concentrations of fluores cein in rabbit's anterior chamber after one minute of iontophoresis with currents shown or with no current (0 mamp). Each symbol indicates one eye; open circles, 0.03% fluoresce in solution; closed circles, 0.3% fluorescein solution.

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Maximum concentrations of fluores

cein in rabbit's anterior chamber after one minute of iontophoresis with currents shown or with no current (0 mamp). Each symbol indicates one eye; open circles, 0.03% fluoresce in solution; closed circles, 0.3% fluorescein solution.

A Fresh Look at Iontophoresis – Arch Ophthalmol – Vol 102, Dec 1984


Gentamicin concentrations in rabbit's aqueous humor two hours after simple immersion for ten minutes or iontophoresis at

1 mamp for one minute.

A Fresh Look at Iontophoresis – Arch Ophthalmol – Vol 102, Dec 1984


Suggested method of using ionto phoresis to deliver drug from hydrophilic contact lens in which contact is made through cotton-tipped applicator soaked in saline. Electrical circuit is designed to deliver 1 mamp and to diminish switching transients. K indicates kilo Ω

A Fresh Look at Iontophoresis – Arch Ophthalmol – Vol 102, Dec 1984


Total radioactivity in acid-soluble fraction of rabbit eye after administration of tritiated vidarabine monophosphate

Iontophoresis of vidarabine monophosphate into rabbit eyes. - Invest. Ophthal. Visual Sci. May 1978


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TREATMENT OF CYTOMEGALOVIRUS RETINITIS WITH A SUSTAINED-RELEASE GANCICLOVIR IMPLANT - Volume 337 Number 2 – Fig 1


Survival among Patients with Cytomegalovirus Retinitis. Base Line.

TREATMENT OF CYTOMEGALOVIRUS RETINITIS WITH A SUSTAINED-RELEASE GANCICLOVIR IMPLANT - Volume 337 Number 2 – Fig 2


Neurotech Base Line.’s proprietary encapsulated cell therapy. Encapsulated cell implants consist of living cells encapsulated within semipermeable polymer membranes and supportive matrices: (A) longitudinal view of cell-containing implant: (B) intraocular placement of an encapsulated cell implant

Intraocular Drug Delivery – Chapter 08, Fig 2


  • Chamber A contains a diffusant that is full dissolved in A and is at a higher concentration than in chamber B, which is a perfect sink. Diffusion from A to B is driven by the concentration difference between the two chambers.

  • (B) Chamber A contanins a suspension of a diffusant. As the diffunsant moves to chamber B, the decrease in concentration can be off-set by the dissolution of the suspended particles, which acts to maintain the concentration gradient

Intraocular Drug Delivery – Chapter 01, Fig 3


Intra-ocular pressure (mmHg) of rabbit and is at a higher concentration than in chamber B, which is a perfect sink. Diffusion from A to B is driven by the concentration difference between the two chambers. ’s eye after instillation of 1% w/v atenolol in solution and in different concentrations of CMC gel

A Long Acting Ophthalmic Gel Formulations of Atenolol - Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, 33:1192–1198, 2007 – fig 7


Intra-ocular pressure (mmHg) of rabbit and is at a higher concentration than in chamber B, which is a perfect sink. Diffusion from A to B is driven by the concentration difference between the two chambers. ’s eye after instillation of 1% w/v atenolol in solution and in different concentrations of sodium

alginate gel.

A Long Acting Ophthalmic Gel Formulations of Atenolol - Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, 33:1192–1198, 2007 – fig 8


Model of drug uptake by the cornea from the tears and is at a higher concentration than in chamber B, which is a perfect sink. Diffusion from A to B is driven by the concentration difference between the two chambers.

Clinical pharmacokinetics of the eye – Invest Ophthalmol Vis 21:504-541, 1981


Time course of the concentration changes of the drug in cornea (upper curve) and in the anterior chamber (lower curve) after instillation of 50 Ul of 1% C-befunol in the albino rabbit eye

Clinical pharmacokinetics of the eye – Invest Ophthalmol Vis 21:504-541, 1981


Permeability of the epithelial barrier (Kep) of the rabbit cornea to various drugs

Clinical pharmacokinetics of the eye – Invest Ophthalmol Vis 21:504-541, 1981


Pharmacokinetic coefficients in the human eye for various drug, calculated from actual measurements of aqueous concentrations

Clinical pharmacokinetics of the eye – Invest Ophthalmol Vis 21:504-541, 1981


Relationships between the peak aqueous concentration and the loss rate in the tears

Clinical pharmacokinetics of the eye – Invest Ophthalmol Vis 21:504-541, 1981


Relationship between the relative bioavailability and the drop size of 0.5% pilocarpine solution. Solid lines, Probable range of the mean.

Clinical pharmacokinetics of the eye – Invest Ophthalmol Vis 21:504-541, 1981


Time course of the response parameter drop size of 0.5% pilocarpine solution.

after instillation of 0.5% pilocarpine solution (•), 0.5% pilocarpine in 0.5% HPMC solution (o), and after application of 100 mg of 0.5% pilocarpine ointment (▲).

Clinical pharmacokinetics of the eye – Invest Ophthalmol Vis 21:504-541, 1981


Relationship between the relative bioavailability and the viscosity of the HPMC solution containing 0.5% pilocarpine. Solid lines, Probable range of the mean.

Clinical pharmacokinetics of the eye – Invest Ophthalmol Vis 21:504-541, 1981


Relative bioavailability and the degree of tear film saturation.

Clinical pharmacokinetics of the eye – Invest Ophthalmol Vis 21:504-541, 1981


Time course of the response parameter after instillation of 0.5% pilocarpine solution (•), instillation of 0.5% pilocarpine in 0.5% HPMC solution (o), and after 1 hr wear of the soft contact lens (▲) presoaked in 0.02% pilocarpine solution for 25 min.

Clinical pharmacokinetics of the eye – Invest Ophthalmol Vis 21:504-541, 1981


Time course of the response parameter after instillation of 0.5% pilocarpine in the presence (▲) and absence (∆) of soft contact lens in the eye. Left, Increased bioavailability; right, decreased bioavailability by the presence of soft contact lens

Clinical pharmacokinetics of the eye – Invest Ophthalmol Vis 21:504-541, 1981


Pharmacokinetic coefficients of cycloplegic responses 0.5% pilocarpine in the presence (▲) and absence (∆) of soft contact lens in the eye. Left, Increased bioavailability; right, decreased bioavailability by the presence of soft contact lens

Clinical pharmacokinetics of the eye – Invest Ophthalmol Vis 21:504-541, 1981


Schematic drawing of the ocular structures and the principal routes by which active ingredients pass into the circulation system

Systemic adverse effects of topical ocular treatments - Presse Med 2005; 34: 589-95


Transfer of a ionizable molecule through the cornea routes by which active ingredients pass into the circulation system

Systemic adverse effects of topical ocular treatments - Presse Med 2005; 34: 589-95


Cost Analysis of Glaucoma Medications: A 3-Year R - routes by which active ingredients pass into the circulation systemJournal of Glaucoma 11:354–358 / 2000


Yearly cost per patient for selected glaucoma medications routes by which active ingredients pass into the circulation system

Cost Analysis of Glaucoma Medications: A 3-Year R - Journal of Glaucoma 11:354–358 / 2000


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