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Introduction to the History of the EU and its political system. Dr. Philippe Perchoc p.perchoc@gmail.com. Objectives of the course. Introduction to the History of the EU Better understand how it works. Methods. Introduction to 4 different topics Discussion at the end of each session.

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Introduction to the History of the EU and itspolitical system

Dr. Philippe Perchoc

p.perchoc@gmail.com


Objectives of the course

  • Introduction to the History of the EU

  • Better understand how it works


Methods

  • Introduction to 4 different topics

  • Discussion at the end of each session


4 different topics

  • The Second World War and the first attempts to unite Europe

  • The 3 main tensions in the EU system

  • The Policies of the EU

  • The Politics of the EU


The EU in concentric circles


Is Europe a continent like others ?


How big ?


Europe = ? km2


Europe = 10 millions km2

China = ?


Europe = 10 millions km2

China = 9.4 millions km2

Africa ?


Europe = 10 millions km2

China = 9.4 millions km2

Africa = 30 millions km2


Europe = 10 millions km2

China = 9.4 millions km2

Africa = 30 millions km2

North America = 30 millions km2


A Continent full of states


How many states in Africa ?


54 +

South Soudan

Libya (1 or 2 states?)


How many states in Europe ?

10 millions km2


48


What is Europe ?

An idea

A continent

A handful of institutions


A Continent


Europe and its states

The oldest ?

The newest?


Europe and its regions

Plenty of regions = plenty of problems


State = culture = perception


A good Eurocratknows everything

about EU institutions


A true European knows at least

something about:


BERLINWALL

PEOPLE

Stefan Szweig

war

Instutitions

M ONNET

Peace

Erasmus

History

Kant

LA LETTONIE

Religions

ART

Napoleon

kalergi

COUDENHOVE


Introduction


ECC 1957 and Charlemagne


Richard CoudenhoveKalergi and the Paneuropa Movement


Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi


Pan-Europa Flag


Aristide Briand and the Franco-German attempt(Aristide Briand)


Jean Monnet and the practical way to unite Europe


Jean Monnet


I. The Second World War and the functionalist idea


The Council of Europe


Council of Europe

47 countries

Mainly Human Rights

European Court of Human Rights

Strasbourg


The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)


The Schuman Declaration – 9th May 1950


1950: the ECSC


1949:NATO


1953: the opposition to the European Defence Community


From the ECSC to the EEC


The ECSC institutional framework


Court of Justice

The High Authority

Council of Ministers

The European Parliament


Composition

  • 2 Germany

  • 2 France

  • 2 Italy

  • 1 Belgium

  • 1 Nederland

  • 1 Luxembourg

Powers

The High Authority

  • propose legislation

  • execute the decisions

Seat

  • Luxembourg


Composition

  • One Minister per Member State

Powers

Council of Ministers

  • control the HA on issues related to Coal and Steel

  • consent legislation in other fields


Composition

  • 78 members coming from national Parliaments

Powers

  • 2/3 can vote defiance over the HA

  • oral and written questions

The European Parliament

Seat

  • Strasbourg


The ECC institutional framework


Composition

  • 2 Germany

  • 2 France

  • 2 Italy

  • 1 Belgium

  • 1 Nederland

  • 1 Luxembourg

Powers

The European Commission

  • propose legislation

  • control the competition policy

Seat

  • Brussels


Composition

  • One Minister per Member State

  • Different composition depending of the subject

Powers

Council of Ministers

  • Decide by unanimity or QMV on propositions sent by the EC

  • Executive powers


Composition

  • 78 members coming from national Parliament – directly elected after 1979

Powers

  • 51% can vote defiance over the EC

  • oral and written questions

  • examination of the ECC Budget

The European Parliament

Seat

  • Strasbourg


1950’s and 1970’s crises


1965 Empty Chair crisis


Court of Justice

European Council

European Commission

Council of Ministers

The European Parliament


1979 first direct elections of the EP


1979. Thatcher and the UK contribution


Court of Justice

European Council

European Commission

Council of Ministers

The European Parliament


The Enlargement issue


1995: Enlargement of the EU


How does it work? (since the Maastricht Treaty 1992)



Court of Justice

European Council

European Commission

Council of Ministers

The European Parliament


  • Facilitate communication among Europeans

  • Foster the realization of the Single Market

European Council


European Commission

Council of Ministers

The European Parliament


Court of Justice

European Commission

Council of Ministers

apply


The European Union in 2012


IV. What is Europe doing?


The EU Budget


The EU Budget

  • Own resources (tariffs)

  • VAT (value added tax) resources

  • contribution by Member States based on their GNI/EU GNI

147 billions

(2012)


The EU Budget


EU Competencies


The EU as an International actor


The EU in concentric circles


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