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New Staff Orientation. Reducing Recidivism Through Evidence-based Practices. What works in reducing or changing criminal behavior?. Let’s Look at History. 1970s – “Nothing Works” 1980s – Deterrence and punishment 1990s – Meta-analysis “What Works” - Incapacitation with Treatment

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New staff orientation

New Staff Orientation

Reducing Recidivism Through Evidence-based Practices



Let s look at history
Let’s Look at History

  • 1970s – “Nothing Works”

  • 1980s – Deterrence and punishment

  • 1990s – Meta-analysis “What Works”

    - Incapacitation with Treatment

  • 2000s – Evidence-based practices



Best practices
Best Practices

  • Based on collective, individual experience

  • Not necessarily based on scientifically tested knowledge

  • Does not imply attention to outcomes, evidence, or measurable standards; often based on word of mouth evidence


What works
What Works

  • Points to general outcomes

    • High risk offenders

    • Cognitive-behavioral approach

    • Criminogenic needs

  • Meta-analytic Review

    • Analysis of large number of studies


Cognitive behavioral approach
Cognitive-behavioral Approach

  • Help the offender to change the attitudes and thinking patterns that contribute to criminal behavior

  • Replace with pro-social and non-criminal thinking and behavior


Evidence based practices
Evidence-based Practices

  • Getting at a specific result

    • Cognitive-behavioral treatment is effective in reducing recidivism with high risk offenders.

    • Coercive treatment works in reducing substance abuse

  • Is measurable



Principles of effective intervention
Principles of Effective Intervention correctional treatment programs can significantly reduce recidivism

  • Risk Principle – target higher risk offenders (WHO)

  • Need Principle – target criminogenic risk/need factors (WHAT)

  • Treatment Principle – use behavioral approaches (HOW)


Risk principle
Risk Principle correctional treatment programs can significantly reduce recidivism

  • Target those offenders with higher probability of recidivism

  • Provide most intensive treatment to higher risk offenders

  • Intensive treatment for lower risk offender can increase recidivism


Higher risk versus lower risk offenders results from meta analyses of behavioral programs
Higher Risk versus Lower Risk Offenders: Results from Meta-Analyses of Behavioral Programs

Source: Gendreau, P., French, S.A. and A. Taylor (2002). What Works (What Doesn’t Work) Revised 2002. Invited submission to the International Community Corrections Association Monograph Series Project.


Recent study of intensive rehabilitation supervision in canada
Recent Study of Intensive Rehabilitation Supervision in Canada

Bonta, J et al., 2000. A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation of an Intensive Rehabilitation Supervision Program., Vol. 27 No 3:312-329. Criminal Justice and Behavior


Criminogenic Canada

Anti social attitudes

Anti social friends

Substance abuse

Lack of empathy

Impulsive behavior

Non-Criminogenic

Anxiety

Low self esteem

Creative abilities

Medical needs

Physical conditioning

Need PrincipleBy assessing and targeting criminogenic needs for change, agencies can reduce the probability of recidivism


Targeting criminogenic need results from meta analyses
Targeting Criminogenic Need: Results from Meta-Analyses Canada

Reduction in Recidivism

Increase in Recidivism

Source: Gendreau, P., French, S.A., and A.Taylor (2002). What Works (What Doesn’t Work) Revised 2002. Invited Submission to the International Community Corrections Association Monograph Series Project


Criminogenic need
Criminogenic Need Canada

Factors that contribute to criminal behavior:

  • Dysfunctional family relationships

  • Anti-social peers

  • Anti-social attitudes, values and beliefs that support crime (e.g. non-conforming, anti-authority, hostility)

  • Substance abuse

  • Low self control


Treatment principle
Treatment Principle Canada

The most effective interventions are behavioral:

  • Focus on current factors that influence behavior

  • Action oriented

  • Offender behavior is appropriately reinforced


Behavioral vs nonbehavioral
Behavioral vs. NonBehavioral Canada

Reduced Recidivism

Increased Recidivism

Andrews, D.A. 1994. An Overview of Treatment Effectiveness. Research and Clinical Principles, Department of Psychology, Carleton University. The N refers to the number of studies.


Most effective behavioral models
Most Effective Behavioral Models Canada

  • Structured social learning where new skills and behavioral are modeled

  • Cognitive behavioral approaches that target criminogenic risk factors

  • Family based approaches that train family on appropriate techniques


Non behavioral approaches
Non-Behavioral Approaches Canada

  • Drug prevention classes focused on fear and other emotional appeals

  • Shaming offenders

  • Drug education programs

  • Non-directive, client centered approaches

  • Bibliotherapy

  • Freudian approaches

  • Talking cures

  • Self-Help programs

  • Vague unstructured rehabilitation programs

  • Medical model

  • Fostering self-regard (self-esteem)

  • “Punishing smarter” (boot camps, scared straight, etc.)


What doesn t work not research supported
What Doesn’t Work Canada(Not Research Supported)

  • Targeting low risk offenders

  • Targeting non-criminogenic needs

  • Punishment sanctions only

  • Shock incarceration/probation

  • Insight-oriented psychotherapy

  • Home detention with electronic monitoring only

  • Encounter type program models

  • Challenge/self-discipline programs

  • Routine probation supervision practices


Recent study of community correctional programs in ohio
RECENT STUDY OF COMMUNITY CORRECTIONAL PROGRAMS IN OHIO Canada

  • Largest study of community based correctional treatment facilities ever done

  • Total of 13,221 offenders – 37 Halfway Houses and 15 Community Based Correctional Facilities (CBCFs) were included in the study.

  • Two-year follow-up conducted on all offenders

  • Recidivism measures included new arrests & incarceration in a state penal institution

  • We also examined program characteristics


Experimental groups
Experimental Groups: Canada

  • 3,737 offenders released from prison in FY 99 and placed in one of 37 Halfway Houses in Ohio

  • 3,629 offenders direct sentenced to one of 15 CBCFs

    Control Group:

  • 5,855 offenders released from prison onto parole supervision during the same time period

  • Offenders were matched based on offense level & county of sentence


Determination of risk
Determination of Risk Canada

  • Each offender was given a risk score based on 14 items that predicted outcome.

  • Compared low risk offenders who were placed in a program to low risk offenders that were not, high risk to high risk, and so forth.



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Recidivism by risk category and group for sex offenders n 390
Recidivism by Risk Category and Group for Sex Offenders (n=390)

Recidivism = incarcerated in a penal institution. Ohio ½ and CBCF study


Recidivism rates for parole violators
Recidivism Rates for Parole Violators (n=390)

Ohio ½ and CBCF study


National institute of corrections implementing evidence based principles in community corrections

Evidence-Based (n=390)

Principles

Collaboration

Organizational

Development

National Institute of CorrectionsImplementing Evidence-based Principles in Community Corrections


Eight evidence based principles for effective interventions
Eight Evidence-Based Principles for Effective Interventions (n=390)

Measure Outcomes

Provide Ongoing Support

Provide Positive Reinforcement

Address Cognitive-Behavioral Functioning

Provide Quality Assurance

Target Interventions

Enhance Offender Motivation

Assess Offender Risk and Needs


Eight evidence based principles for effective interventions1
Eight Evidence-Based Principles for Effective Interventions (n=390)

Assess Offender Risk and Needs


Assess offender risk need
Assess Offender Risk & Need (n=390)

  • What predicts criminal behavior?

    • Anti social attitudes

    • Anti-social peers

    • Substance abuse

    • Low self-control

    • Anti-social attitudes and values

      (Gendreau 1992 & 1997, Andrews & Bonta, 1998, Harland, 1996, Sherman, 1998, McGuirre, 2001-2002, Elliot, 2001, Lipton, 2000)


Assess offender risk need1
Assess Offender Risk & Need (n=390)

  • How do we measure these predictors?

    • Risk Instruments –

      • Offender Screening Tool (OST)

      • Field Re-assessment of the Offender Screening Tool (FROST)

      • Modified Offender Screening Tool (M-OST)

      • Stable & Static 99

      • SARA & DVSI

    • Need Instruments –

      • Adult Substance Use Survey (ASUS)


Assess offender risk need2
Assess Offender Risk & Need (n=390)

  • How should we use these results?

    • Provides information to develop offender case plan

    • Establishes supervision level

    • Identifies targeted needs for intervention

    • Provides baseline and measure of change in offender


Assess risk needs
Assess Risk & Needs (n=390)

  • Officer Responsibilities

    • Review assessments with offender

    • Incorporate into case plan

    • Re-assess and measure change


Eight evidence based principles for effective interventions2
Eight Evidence-Based Principles for Effective Interventions (n=390)

Enhance Offender Motivation

Assess Offender Risk and Needs


Enhance offender motivation
Enhance Offender Motivation (n=390)

  • For lasting change to occur, there needs to be a level of intrinsic motivation

  • Research strongly suggest that motivational interviewing effectively enhances motivation for initiating and maintaining change behavior. (Miller & Rollnick, 2002; et. al.)


Enhance offender motivation1
Enhance Offender Motivation (n=390)

  • Officer Responsibilities:

    • Use evidence-based verbal and non-verbal communication skills:

      • Attending, reflections, summarizations, open-ended questions, etc.

    • Explore offender’s attitude toward change

    • Avoid non-productive arguing and blaming

    • Encourage praise, be optimistic


Eight evidence based principles for effective interventions3
Eight Evidence-Based Principles for Effective Interventions (n=390)

Target Interventions

Enhance Offender Motivation

Assess Offender Risk and Needs


Target interventions
Target Interventions (n=390)

  • Risk Principle: Prioritize supervision and treatment resources for high risk offenders

  • Need principle: Target intervention to criminogenic needs

  • Treatment Principle: Behavioral approach

  • Responsivity Principle

    • Match treatment type to offender

    • Matching treatment provider to offender

    • Matching style and methods of communication with offender’s stage of change readiness


Target interventions1
Target Interventions (n=390)

  • Dosage

    • Evidence shows that high risk offenders initially need 40% to 70% of their time in the community occupied over a three to nine month period

    • Incomplete dosage can have a negative effect and waste resources


Results from a recent study of treatment dosage in a prison setting
Results from a Recent Study of Treatment “Dosage” in a Prison Setting

  • 620 Incarcerated Males

  • Three variations in Cognitive Behavioral Treatment:

  • 100 hours

  • 200 hours

  • 300 hours

  • Comprehensive assessments were conducted and offenders assigned based on risk level and needs

  • Recidivism defined as incarceration (either a new conviction or revocation); one year follow-up.

  • Overall, the treatment group received an average of 150 hours of treatment, which reduced recidivism 10%

  • Dosage of treatment however, appears to be an important factor:


Dosage continued
Dosage Continued: Prison Setting

  • Reductions in recidivism increased between 1.2% to 1.7% for each additional 20 hours of treatment

  • For Moderate risk offenders with few needs, 100 hours was sufficient to reduce recidivism

  • For High risk offenders with multiple needs, longer programs are required to significantly reduce recidivism

  • A 100 hour program had no effect on high risk offenders

  • For offenders deemed appropriate (i.e. either high risk or multiple needs, but not both), it appears that 200 hours are required to significantly reduce recidivism

  • If the offender is high risk & has multiple needs it may require in excess of 300 hours of treatment to affect recidivism


Target interventions2
Target Interventions Prison Setting

  • Treatment Principles:

    • Proactive and strategic case planning

    • Treatment, particularly cognitive-behavioral should be applied

    • Targeted, timely treatment provides the greatest long-term benefit

    • Does not necessarily apply to lower risk offenders and can have detrimental effects

      (Andrews & Bonta, 1998, Petersilia, 1997 & 2002, Taxman & Byrne, 2001)


Officer responsibilities
Officer Responsibilities Prison Setting

  • Based on risk & needs assessment, make appropriate referrals to address needs (Responsivity)

  • Set appropriate limits and provide clear direction to the offender

  • Know the treatment dosage of your referral. (Dosage)


Lessons learned
Lessons Learned Prison Setting

  • Who you put in a program is important – pay attention to risk

  • What you target is important – pay attention to criminogenic needs

  • How you target offender for change is important – use behavioral approaches


Eight evidence based principles for effective interventions4
Eight Evidence-Based Principles for Effective Interventions Prison Setting

Address Cognitive-Behavioral Functioning

Target Interventions

Enhance Offender Motivation

Assess Offender Risk and Needs


Address cognitive behavioral functioning
Address Cognitive-behavioral Functioning Prison Setting

  • Cognitive treatment addresses deviant thinking patterns

  • Behavioral modification programs are designed to shape and maintain appropriate behavior until they become habit

  • Consistently found to be an effective rehabilitative strategy


Address cognitive behavioral functioning1
Address Cognitive-behavioral Functioning Prison Setting

  • Officer Responsibilities

    • Understand anti-social thinking and appropriate communication techniques

    • Positively reinforce pro-social attitudes and behaviors

    • Make appropriate referrals using evidence-based information


Recent meta analysis of cognitive behavioral treatment for offenders by landenberger lipsey 2005
Recent Meta-Analysis of Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Offenders by Landenberger & Lipsey (2005)*

  • Reviewed 58 studies:

    19 random samples

    23 matched samples

    16 convenience samples

  • Found that on average CBT reduced recidivism by 25%, but the most effective configurations found more than 50% reductions


Factors not significant
Factors Not significant: Offenders by Landenberger & Lipsey (2005)*

  • Type of research design

  • Setting - prison (generally closer to end of sentence) versus community

  • Juvenile versus adult

  • Minorities or females

  • Brand name


Significant findings effects were stronger if
Significant Findings Offenders by Landenberger & Lipsey (2005)*(effects were stronger if):

  • Sessions per week (2 or more)

  • Implementation monitored

  • Staff trained on CBT

  • Higher proportion of treatment completers

  • Higher risk offenders

  • Higher if CBT is combined with other services


Eight evidence based principles for effective interventions5
Eight Evidence-Based Principles for Effective Interventions Offenders by Landenberger & Lipsey (2005)*

Provide Positive Reinforcement

Address Cognitive-Behavioral Functioning

Target Interventions

Enhance Offender Motivation

Assess Offender Risk and Needs


Provide positive reinforcement
Provide Positive Reinforcement Offenders by Landenberger & Lipsey (2005)*

  • Research shows that people tend to comply in the direction of most rewards and least punishments

  • Research indicates a ratio of four positive to every one negative reinforcement is optimal for promoting behavior change.

  • Increasing positive reinforcement should not be done if it undermines swift, certain, and real responses for negative and unacceptable behavior


Provide positive reinforcement1
Provide Positive Reinforcement Offenders by Landenberger & Lipsey (2005)*

  • Officer responsibilities:

    • Convey optimism that the offender can change

    • Encourage and praise any evidence of pro-social behavior

    • Reinforce offender change talk and self-efficacy


Eight evidence based principles for effective interventions6
Eight Evidence-Based Principles for Effective Interventions Offenders by Landenberger & Lipsey (2005)*

Provide Ongoing Support

Provide Positive Reinforcement

Address Cognitive-Behavioral Functioning

Target Interventions

Enhance Offender Motivation

Assess Offender Risk and Needs


Provide ongoing support
Provide Ongoing Support Offenders by Landenberger & Lipsey (2005)*

  • Research indicates that successful interventions include the use of family members, spouses, and supportive others in the offenders environment to positively reinforce desired new behaviors

  • Relapse prevention training should be part of treatment and supervision plan


Provide ongoing support1
Provide Ongoing Support Offenders by Landenberger & Lipsey (2005)*

  • Officer Responsibilities:

    • Officers need to learn and apply relapse prevention techniques

    • Identify and establish relationships with offender’s positive support systems in the community

    • Recognize triggers for relapse and make timely intervention


Eight evidence based principles for effective interventions7
Eight Evidence-Based Principles for Effective Interventions Offenders by Landenberger & Lipsey (2005)*

Measure Outcomes

Provide Ongoing Support

Provide Positive Reinforcement

Address Cognitive-Behavioral Functioning

Target Interventions

Enhance Offender Motivation

Assess Offender Risk and Needs


Measure outcomes
Measure Outcomes Offenders by Landenberger & Lipsey (2005)*

  • Documentation of case information and measuring outcomes is the foundation for evidence-based practices

  • Measuring outcomes identifies whether your evidence-based practices are effective and achieving the desired results

  • Critical component of the County’s business principles known as Managing For Results (MFR)

  • MFR integrates planning, budgeting, and performance measurement


Measure outcomes1
Measure Outcomes Offenders by Landenberger & Lipsey (2005)*

  • Officer Responsibilities:

    • Maintain case documentation, written and automated

    • Complete risk/needs assessment at least every six months, assess offender change and modify case plan accordingly

    • Compile accurate statistical information

    • Use outcome measures and statistical information to manage caseloads


Eight evidence based principles for effective interventions8
Eight Evidence-Based Principles for Effective Interventions Offenders by Landenberger & Lipsey (2005)*

Measure Outcomes

Provide Ongoing Support

Provide Positive Reinforcement

Provide Quality Assurance

Address Cognitive-Behavioral Functioning

Target Interventions

Enhance Offender Motivation

Assess Offender Risk and Needs


Provide quality assurance
Provide Quality Assurance Offenders by Landenberger & Lipsey (2005)*

  • Continuous process of feedback and analysis that ensures organization is effectively using evidence-based practices

    • Performance measurement

    • Staff development & training

    • Hiring practices

    • Performance evaluation

    • Policies & procedures

    • Etc.


Maricopa county s quality assurance system
Maricopa County’s Offenders by Landenberger & Lipsey (2005)*Quality Assurance System

MANAGING FOR RESULTS

  • Planning for results

  • Budgeting for results

  • Reporting results

  • Evaluating results

  • Decision making


Key results
Key Results Offenders by Landenberger & Lipsey (2005)*

  • Standard probationers not committed to DOC

  • IPS probationers not committed to DOC

  • Successful completion of probation

  • Successful completion of pretrial release

  • Presentence reports without a continuance


“Budgets can no longer support programs and supervision practices that have not proven to be effective.”Thomas White


Your role in providing quality assurance
Your role in providing practices that have not proven to be effective.”Quality Assurance

  • Understand and apply evidence-based principles

  • Attend training

  • Ask for feedback and supervision/coaching

  • Follow policies and procedures

  • Become familiar with evidence-based practices literature

  • Practice, Practice, Practice


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