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New Staff Orientation. Reducing Recidivism Through Evidence-based Practices. What works in reducing or changing criminal behavior?. Let’s Look at History. 1970s – “Nothing Works” 1980s – Deterrence and punishment 1990s – Meta-analysis “What Works” - Incapacitation with Treatment

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new staff orientation

New Staff Orientation

Reducing Recidivism Through Evidence-based Practices

let s look at history
Let’s Look at History
  • 1970s – “Nothing Works”
  • 1980s – Deterrence and punishment
  • 1990s – Meta-analysis “What Works”

- Incapacitation with Treatment

  • 2000s – Evidence-based practices
best practices
Best Practices
  • Based on collective, individual experience
  • Not necessarily based on scientifically tested knowledge
  • Does not imply attention to outcomes, evidence, or measurable standards; often based on word of mouth evidence
what works
What Works
  • Points to general outcomes
    • High risk offenders
    • Cognitive-behavioral approach
    • Criminogenic needs
  • Meta-analytic Review
    • Analysis of large number of studies
cognitive behavioral approach
Cognitive-behavioral Approach
  • Help the offender to change the attitudes and thinking patterns that contribute to criminal behavior
  • Replace with pro-social and non-criminal thinking and behavior
evidence based practices
Evidence-based Practices
  • Getting at a specific result
    • Cognitive-behavioral treatment is effective in reducing recidivism with high risk offenders.
    • Coercive treatment works in reducing substance abuse
  • Is measurable
slide9
Over 20 years of research has clearly demonstrated that correctional treatment programs can significantly reduce recidivism
  • The most effective programs meet certain empirically derived principles
principles of effective intervention
Principles of Effective Intervention
  • Risk Principle – target higher risk offenders (WHO)
  • Need Principle – target criminogenic risk/need factors (WHAT)
  • Treatment Principle – use behavioral approaches (HOW)
risk principle
Risk Principle
  • Target those offenders with higher probability of recidivism
  • Provide most intensive treatment to higher risk offenders
  • Intensive treatment for lower risk offender can increase recidivism
higher risk versus lower risk offenders results from meta analyses of behavioral programs
Higher Risk versus Lower Risk Offenders: Results from Meta-Analyses of Behavioral Programs

Source: Gendreau, P., French, S.A. and A. Taylor (2002). What Works (What Doesn’t Work) Revised 2002. Invited submission to the International Community Corrections Association Monograph Series Project.

recent study of intensive rehabilitation supervision in canada
Recent Study of Intensive Rehabilitation Supervision in Canada

Bonta, J et al., 2000. A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation of an Intensive Rehabilitation Supervision Program., Vol. 27 No 3:312-329. Criminal Justice and Behavior

slide14
Criminogenic

Anti social attitudes

Anti social friends

Substance abuse

Lack of empathy

Impulsive behavior

Non-Criminogenic

Anxiety

Low self esteem

Creative abilities

Medical needs

Physical conditioning

Need PrincipleBy assessing and targeting criminogenic needs for change, agencies can reduce the probability of recidivism
targeting criminogenic need results from meta analyses
Targeting Criminogenic Need: Results from Meta-Analyses

Reduction in Recidivism

Increase in Recidivism

Source: Gendreau, P., French, S.A., and A.Taylor (2002). What Works (What Doesn’t Work) Revised 2002. Invited Submission to the International Community Corrections Association Monograph Series Project

criminogenic need
Criminogenic Need

Factors that contribute to criminal behavior:

  • Dysfunctional family relationships
  • Anti-social peers
  • Anti-social attitudes, values and beliefs that support crime (e.g. non-conforming, anti-authority, hostility)
  • Substance abuse
  • Low self control
treatment principle
Treatment Principle

The most effective interventions are behavioral:

  • Focus on current factors that influence behavior
  • Action oriented
  • Offender behavior is appropriately reinforced
behavioral vs nonbehavioral
Behavioral vs. NonBehavioral

Reduced Recidivism

Increased Recidivism

Andrews, D.A. 1994. An Overview of Treatment Effectiveness. Research and Clinical Principles, Department of Psychology, Carleton University. The N refers to the number of studies.

most effective behavioral models
Most Effective Behavioral Models
  • Structured social learning where new skills and behavioral are modeled
  • Cognitive behavioral approaches that target criminogenic risk factors
  • Family based approaches that train family on appropriate techniques
non behavioral approaches
Non-Behavioral Approaches
  • Drug prevention classes focused on fear and other emotional appeals
  • Shaming offenders
  • Drug education programs
  • Non-directive, client centered approaches
  • Bibliotherapy
  • Freudian approaches
  • Talking cures
  • Self-Help programs
  • Vague unstructured rehabilitation programs
  • Medical model
  • Fostering self-regard (self-esteem)
  • “Punishing smarter” (boot camps, scared straight, etc.)
what doesn t work not research supported
What Doesn’t Work (Not Research Supported)
  • Targeting low risk offenders
  • Targeting non-criminogenic needs
  • Punishment sanctions only
  • Shock incarceration/probation
  • Insight-oriented psychotherapy
  • Home detention with electronic monitoring only
  • Encounter type program models
  • Challenge/self-discipline programs
  • Routine probation supervision practices
recent study of community correctional programs in ohio
RECENT STUDY OF COMMUNITY CORRECTIONAL PROGRAMS IN OHIO
  • Largest study of community based correctional treatment facilities ever done
  • Total of 13,221 offenders – 37 Halfway Houses and 15 Community Based Correctional Facilities (CBCFs) were included in the study.
  • Two-year follow-up conducted on all offenders
  • Recidivism measures included new arrests & incarceration in a state penal institution
  • We also examined program characteristics
experimental groups
Experimental Groups:
  • 3,737 offenders released from prison in FY 99 and placed in one of 37 Halfway Houses in Ohio
  • 3,629 offenders direct sentenced to one of 15 CBCFs

Control Group:

  • 5,855 offenders released from prison onto parole supervision during the same time period
  • Offenders were matched based on offense level & county of sentence
determination of risk
Determination of Risk
  • Each offender was given a risk score based on 14 items that predicted outcome.
  • Compared low risk offenders who were placed in a program to low risk offenders that were not, high risk to high risk, and so forth.
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recidivism by risk category and group for sex offenders n 390
Recidivism by Risk Category and Group for Sex Offenders (n=390)

Recidivism = incarcerated in a penal institution. Ohio ½ and CBCF study

national institute of corrections implementing evidence based principles in community corrections

Evidence-Based

Principles

Collaboration

Organizational

Development

National Institute of CorrectionsImplementing Evidence-based Principles in Community Corrections
eight evidence based principles for effective interventions
Eight Evidence-Based Principles for Effective Interventions

Measure Outcomes

Provide Ongoing Support

Provide Positive Reinforcement

Address Cognitive-Behavioral Functioning

Provide Quality Assurance

Target Interventions

Enhance Offender Motivation

Assess Offender Risk and Needs

assess offender risk need
Assess Offender Risk & Need
  • What predicts criminal behavior?
    • Anti social attitudes
    • Anti-social peers
    • Substance abuse
    • Low self-control
    • Anti-social attitudes and values

(Gendreau 1992 & 1997, Andrews & Bonta, 1998, Harland, 1996, Sherman, 1998, McGuirre, 2001-2002, Elliot, 2001, Lipton, 2000)

assess offender risk need1
Assess Offender Risk & Need
  • How do we measure these predictors?
    • Risk Instruments –
      • Offender Screening Tool (OST)
      • Field Re-assessment of the Offender Screening Tool (FROST)
      • Modified Offender Screening Tool (M-OST)
      • Stable & Static 99
      • SARA & DVSI
    • Need Instruments –
      • Adult Substance Use Survey (ASUS)
assess offender risk need2
Assess Offender Risk & Need
  • How should we use these results?
    • Provides information to develop offender case plan
    • Establishes supervision level
    • Identifies targeted needs for intervention
    • Provides baseline and measure of change in offender
assess risk needs
Assess Risk & Needs
  • Officer Responsibilities
    • Review assessments with offender
    • Incorporate into case plan
    • Re-assess and measure change
eight evidence based principles for effective interventions2
Eight Evidence-Based Principles for Effective Interventions

Enhance Offender Motivation

Assess Offender Risk and Needs

enhance offender motivation
Enhance Offender Motivation
  • For lasting change to occur, there needs to be a level of intrinsic motivation
  • Research strongly suggest that motivational interviewing effectively enhances motivation for initiating and maintaining change behavior. (Miller & Rollnick, 2002; et. al.)
enhance offender motivation1
Enhance Offender Motivation
  • Officer Responsibilities:
    • Use evidence-based verbal and non-verbal communication skills:
      • Attending, reflections, summarizations, open-ended questions, etc.
    • Explore offender’s attitude toward change
    • Avoid non-productive arguing and blaming
    • Encourage praise, be optimistic
eight evidence based principles for effective interventions3
Eight Evidence-Based Principles for Effective Interventions

Target Interventions

Enhance Offender Motivation

Assess Offender Risk and Needs

target interventions
Target Interventions
  • Risk Principle: Prioritize supervision and treatment resources for high risk offenders
  • Need principle: Target intervention to criminogenic needs
  • Treatment Principle: Behavioral approach
  • Responsivity Principle
    • Match treatment type to offender
    • Matching treatment provider to offender
    • Matching style and methods of communication with offender’s stage of change readiness
target interventions1
Target Interventions
  • Dosage
    • Evidence shows that high risk offenders initially need 40% to 70% of their time in the community occupied over a three to nine month period
    • Incomplete dosage can have a negative effect and waste resources
results from a recent study of treatment dosage in a prison setting
Results from a Recent Study of Treatment “Dosage” in a Prison Setting
  • 620 Incarcerated Males
  • Three variations in Cognitive Behavioral Treatment:
  • 100 hours
  • 200 hours
  • 300 hours
  • Comprehensive assessments were conducted and offenders assigned based on risk level and needs
  • Recidivism defined as incarceration (either a new conviction or revocation); one year follow-up.
  • Overall, the treatment group received an average of 150 hours of treatment, which reduced recidivism 10%
  • Dosage of treatment however, appears to be an important factor:
dosage continued
Dosage Continued:
  • Reductions in recidivism increased between 1.2% to 1.7% for each additional 20 hours of treatment
  • For Moderate risk offenders with few needs, 100 hours was sufficient to reduce recidivism
  • For High risk offenders with multiple needs, longer programs are required to significantly reduce recidivism
  • A 100 hour program had no effect on high risk offenders
  • For offenders deemed appropriate (i.e. either high risk or multiple needs, but not both), it appears that 200 hours are required to significantly reduce recidivism
  • If the offender is high risk & has multiple needs it may require in excess of 300 hours of treatment to affect recidivism
target interventions2
Target Interventions
  • Treatment Principles:
    • Proactive and strategic case planning
    • Treatment, particularly cognitive-behavioral should be applied
    • Targeted, timely treatment provides the greatest long-term benefit
    • Does not necessarily apply to lower risk offenders and can have detrimental effects

(Andrews & Bonta, 1998, Petersilia, 1997 & 2002, Taxman & Byrne, 2001)

officer responsibilities
Officer Responsibilities
  • Based on risk & needs assessment, make appropriate referrals to address needs (Responsivity)
  • Set appropriate limits and provide clear direction to the offender
  • Know the treatment dosage of your referral. (Dosage)
lessons learned
Lessons Learned
  • Who you put in a program is important – pay attention to risk
  • What you target is important – pay attention to criminogenic needs
  • How you target offender for change is important – use behavioral approaches
eight evidence based principles for effective interventions4
Eight Evidence-Based Principles for Effective Interventions

Address Cognitive-Behavioral Functioning

Target Interventions

Enhance Offender Motivation

Assess Offender Risk and Needs

address cognitive behavioral functioning
Address Cognitive-behavioral Functioning
  • Cognitive treatment addresses deviant thinking patterns
  • Behavioral modification programs are designed to shape and maintain appropriate behavior until they become habit
  • Consistently found to be an effective rehabilitative strategy
address cognitive behavioral functioning1
Address Cognitive-behavioral Functioning
  • Officer Responsibilities
    • Understand anti-social thinking and appropriate communication techniques
    • Positively reinforce pro-social attitudes and behaviors
    • Make appropriate referrals using evidence-based information
recent meta analysis of cognitive behavioral treatment for offenders by landenberger lipsey 2005
Recent Meta-Analysis of Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Offenders by Landenberger & Lipsey (2005)*
  • Reviewed 58 studies:

19 random samples

23 matched samples

16 convenience samples

  • Found that on average CBT reduced recidivism by 25%, but the most effective configurations found more than 50% reductions
factors not significant
Factors Not significant:
  • Type of research design
  • Setting - prison (generally closer to end of sentence) versus community
  • Juvenile versus adult
  • Minorities or females
  • Brand name
significant findings effects were stronger if
Significant Findings (effects were stronger if):
  • Sessions per week (2 or more)
  • Implementation monitored
  • Staff trained on CBT
  • Higher proportion of treatment completers
  • Higher risk offenders
  • Higher if CBT is combined with other services
eight evidence based principles for effective interventions5
Eight Evidence-Based Principles for Effective Interventions

Provide Positive Reinforcement

Address Cognitive-Behavioral Functioning

Target Interventions

Enhance Offender Motivation

Assess Offender Risk and Needs

provide positive reinforcement
Provide Positive Reinforcement
  • Research shows that people tend to comply in the direction of most rewards and least punishments
  • Research indicates a ratio of four positive to every one negative reinforcement is optimal for promoting behavior change.
  • Increasing positive reinforcement should not be done if it undermines swift, certain, and real responses for negative and unacceptable behavior
provide positive reinforcement1
Provide Positive Reinforcement
  • Officer responsibilities:
    • Convey optimism that the offender can change
    • Encourage and praise any evidence of pro-social behavior
    • Reinforce offender change talk and self-efficacy
eight evidence based principles for effective interventions6
Eight Evidence-Based Principles for Effective Interventions

Provide Ongoing Support

Provide Positive Reinforcement

Address Cognitive-Behavioral Functioning

Target Interventions

Enhance Offender Motivation

Assess Offender Risk and Needs

provide ongoing support
Provide Ongoing Support
  • Research indicates that successful interventions include the use of family members, spouses, and supportive others in the offenders environment to positively reinforce desired new behaviors
  • Relapse prevention training should be part of treatment and supervision plan
provide ongoing support1
Provide Ongoing Support
  • Officer Responsibilities:
    • Officers need to learn and apply relapse prevention techniques
    • Identify and establish relationships with offender’s positive support systems in the community
    • Recognize triggers for relapse and make timely intervention
eight evidence based principles for effective interventions7
Eight Evidence-Based Principles for Effective Interventions

Measure Outcomes

Provide Ongoing Support

Provide Positive Reinforcement

Address Cognitive-Behavioral Functioning

Target Interventions

Enhance Offender Motivation

Assess Offender Risk and Needs

measure outcomes
Measure Outcomes
  • Documentation of case information and measuring outcomes is the foundation for evidence-based practices
  • Measuring outcomes identifies whether your evidence-based practices are effective and achieving the desired results
  • Critical component of the County’s business principles known as Managing For Results (MFR)
  • MFR integrates planning, budgeting, and performance measurement
measure outcomes1
Measure Outcomes
  • Officer Responsibilities:
    • Maintain case documentation, written and automated
    • Complete risk/needs assessment at least every six months, assess offender change and modify case plan accordingly
    • Compile accurate statistical information
    • Use outcome measures and statistical information to manage caseloads
eight evidence based principles for effective interventions8
Eight Evidence-Based Principles for Effective Interventions

Measure Outcomes

Provide Ongoing Support

Provide Positive Reinforcement

Provide Quality Assurance

Address Cognitive-Behavioral Functioning

Target Interventions

Enhance Offender Motivation

Assess Offender Risk and Needs

provide quality assurance
Provide Quality Assurance
  • Continuous process of feedback and analysis that ensures organization is effectively using evidence-based practices
    • Performance measurement
    • Staff development & training
    • Hiring practices
    • Performance evaluation
    • Policies & procedures
    • Etc.
maricopa county s quality assurance system
Maricopa County’s Quality Assurance System

MANAGING FOR RESULTS

  • Planning for results
  • Budgeting for results
  • Reporting results
  • Evaluating results
  • Decision making
key results
Key Results
  • Standard probationers not committed to DOC
  • IPS probationers not committed to DOC
  • Successful completion of probation
  • Successful completion of pretrial release
  • Presentence reports without a continuance
slide77
“Budgets can no longer support programs and supervision practices that have not proven to be effective.”Thomas White
your role in providing quality assurance
Your role in providing Quality Assurance
  • Understand and apply evidence-based principles
  • Attend training
  • Ask for feedback and supervision/coaching
  • Follow policies and procedures
  • Become familiar with evidence-based practices literature
  • Practice, Practice, Practice
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