Earthquake engineering
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Earthquake Engineering. What is the Damage Quakes can cause?. Direct Effects. Ground failures: Vibration of soil Fault rupture Liquefaction Ground lurching Differential settlement Lateral spreading. Indirect Effects. Tsunamis Seiches Landslides Floods Fires

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Earthquake Engineering

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EarthquakeEngineering


What is the Damage Quakes can cause?


Direct Effects

Ground failures:

  • Vibration of soil

  • Fault rupture

  • Liquefaction

  • Ground lurching

  • Differential settlement

  • Lateral spreading


Indirect Effects

  • Tsunamis

  • Seiches

  • Landslides

  • Floods

  • Fires

  • Release of hazardous material


What is earthquake engineering?


Earthquake Engineering

It is a branch of engineering devoted to prevent earthquake hazards and its after effects


Why is there Earthquake Engineering?

  • Quakes demonstrated they destroy cities and people faster than Brandon can.


Basic Goals

  • To prevent non-structural damage, structural damage and collapsing of buildings in earthquakes


Quiz

  • What is earthquake engineering?

    It is a branch of engineering devoted to prevent earthquake hazards and its after effects


Now do you want earthquake safe buildings?


Seismic Retrofit!


Seismic Retrofit brings older buildings/structures up to more current seismic standards without having to completely rebuild them.


Sliding

  • Old structures may not be strongly bolted into the foundation

  • Corrosion weakens attachments

  • These structures could be bolted to the foundation.

Weak Foundation


Shock Absorbers

  • A device for reducing the effect of a sudden shock by the dissipation of the earthquake’s shock energy


Base IsolationAllows the ground to move while the building remains in place.

  • This method allows a building to move


Isolation

  • Isolation pads are used to let the ground shake, but have the building not move


Dampers

  • Converts the energy of motion in a building into heat.

  • Are for buildings rigidly attached to the ground; will protect from resonance vibrations.


Shear walls

  • Wall composed of braced panels

  • Flexible

  • Counters the effects of swaying on a structure


Reinforcement

  • Shorter buildings can resist seismic forces.

  • Instead of adding stories, expand the first floor of your home.


Slosh Tanks

  • Water in tank sloshes back and forth during an earthquake

  • Prevents resonance in buildings

  • Extra heat in building is absorbed


Tuned Mass Dampers

  • A device mounted in structures to prevent damage or outright structural failure by vibration.


Masonry

  • Stone veneer or cement

  • More resistant to earthquakes so crack easily

  • Use other lighter materials to replace


Reinforcement

  • Exterior concrete columns

  • Infill shear trusses

  • Massive exterior structure.

  • It is not beautiful but it works.


Quiz-y!

2. What is seismic retrofitting?


Quiz-y!

3. At what college are the dorms reinforced?

UC BERKELEY!!!


Time for SEISMIC DESIGN!

Everyone smile because it’s so exciting!


Traditional Seismic Design

  • Lower stories are stronger than upper stories, meaning it is more prevalent to reinforce taller buildings and higher stories.


Quiz-y!

4. What is traditional seismic design?

Lower stories are stronger than upper stories, meaning it is more prevalent to reinforce taller buildings and higher stories.


Floor Diaphragm

  • Wooden building floors are made on joints to prevent beams from tipping.


Sliding Off Foundation

  • Older homes can be bolted to their foundation to prevent major damage in an earthquake.


BRIDGERetrofits


Hot Rivet Replacement

  • The rivet was replaced with a heat-treated high-strength locator bolt and nut


Lattice Beam Conversion

  • Beams were replaced with bolted steel plates. Also, face plates were added to the large diagonal beams


Diagonal Reinforcement

  • Diagonal box beams are added to the upper and lower decks of the bridges


Expansion Rockers

  • allow the bridge expand and contract with temperature changes


Bay Bridge Structure

  • During the October 17, 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake (7.1 on the Richter Scale). A 50-foot section of the bridge collapsed.


Bay Bridge Retrofit!

  • the strengthening of bents and columns on the east viaduct and the piers, bents, and trusses


Fill & Overpass

  • Elevated roadways are built on sections of elevated earth supported with vertical columns


ROADS!

  • Soil is tested to see if it can hold weight, then asphalt is added


Cypress Freeway Viaduct Collapse

During the Loma Pieta Earthquake, the Cypress Structure collapsed. This roadway was not properly reinforced. After the quake the structure was removed and a new roadway was built.


Overpasses

  • Pillars:

    • Spiral steel girders support columns and prevent bending of steel rods in the highway

Construction of Pillars


  • Add size and weight to bridge’s footing

  • Anchor with metal rods (pilings)

  • Jacket of steel around column

  • Thick cables help hold together

Top: Bridge Components

Left: Cable System


OMG! It’sUNDERWATER TUBES!

It makes you all giddy! 


Underwater Tubes Safety

  • depend on soil conditions, the materials used, and the maximum predicted earthquake expected.


BART! yay!

  • BART trans-bay tube was constructed at the bottom of San Francisco Bay


What does BART have? 

  • two inner tunnels

  • a central tunnel

  • an outer oval shell encompassing the three inner tubes


Quiz!

5. _____ trans-bay tube was constructed at the bottom of San Francisco Bay.

BART! [gasp!]


THE END


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