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Earthquake Engineering. What is the Damage Quakes can cause?. Direct Effects. Ground failures: Vibration of soil Fault rupture Liquefaction Ground lurching Differential settlement Lateral spreading. Indirect Effects. Tsunamis Seiches Landslides Floods Fires

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Earthquake Engineering

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Earthquake engineering
EarthquakeEngineering



Direct effects
Direct Effects

Ground failures:

  • Vibration of soil

  • Fault rupture

  • Liquefaction

  • Ground lurching

  • Differential settlement

  • Lateral spreading


Indirect effects
Indirect Effects

  • Tsunamis

  • Seiches

  • Landslides

  • Floods

  • Fires

  • Release of hazardous material



Earthquake engineering1
Earthquake Engineering

It is a branch of engineering devoted to prevent earthquake hazards and its after effects


Why is there earthquake engineering
Why is there Earthquake Engineering?

  • Quakes demonstrated they destroy cities and people faster than Brandon can.


Basic goals
Basic Goals

  • To prevent non-structural damage, structural damage and collapsing of buildings in earthquakes


Earthquake 0bengineering
Quiz

  • What is earthquake engineering?

    It is a branch of engineering devoted to prevent earthquake hazards and its after effects




Earthquake 0bengineering

Seismic Retrofit brings older buildings/structures up to more current seismic standards without having to completely rebuild them.


Sliding
Sliding more current seismic standards without having to completely rebuild them.

  • Old structures may not be strongly bolted into the foundation

  • Corrosion weakens attachments

  • These structures could be bolted to the foundation.

Weak Foundation


Shock absorbers
Shock Absorbers more current seismic standards without having to completely rebuild them.

  • A device for reducing the effect of a sudden shock by the dissipation of the earthquake’s shock energy


Base isolation allows the ground to move while the building remains in place
Base Isolation more current seismic standards without having to completely rebuild them.Allows the ground to move while the building remains in place.

  • This method allows a building to move


Isolation
Isolation more current seismic standards without having to completely rebuild them.

  • Isolation pads are used to let the ground shake, but have the building not move


Dampers
Dampers more current seismic standards without having to completely rebuild them.

  • Converts the energy of motion in a building into heat.

  • Are for buildings rigidly attached to the ground; will protect from resonance vibrations.


Earthquake 0bengineering

Shear walls more current seismic standards without having to completely rebuild them.

  • Wall composed of braced panels

  • Flexible

  • Counters the effects of swaying on a structure


Earthquake 0bengineering

Reinforcement more current seismic standards without having to completely rebuild them.

  • Shorter buildings can resist seismic forces.

  • Instead of adding stories, expand the first floor of your home.


Earthquake 0bengineering

Slosh Tanks more current seismic standards without having to completely rebuild them.

  • Water in tank sloshes back and forth during an earthquake

  • Prevents resonance in buildings

  • Extra heat in building is absorbed


Tuned mass dampers
Tuned Mass Dampers more current seismic standards without having to completely rebuild them.

  • A device mounted in structures to prevent damage or outright structural failure by vibration.


Earthquake 0bengineering

Masonry more current seismic standards without having to completely rebuild them.

  • Stone veneer or cement

  • More resistant to earthquakes so crack easily

  • Use other lighter materials to replace


Reinforcement
Reinforcement more current seismic standards without having to completely rebuild them.

  • Exterior concrete columns

  • Infill shear trusses

  • Massive exterior structure.

  • It is not beautiful but it works.


Quiz y
Quiz-y! more current seismic standards without having to completely rebuild them.

2. What is seismic retrofitting?


Quiz y1
Quiz-y! more current seismic standards without having to completely rebuild them.

3. At what college are the dorms reinforced?

UC BERKELEY!!!


Time for seismic design
Time for SEISMIC DESIGN! more current seismic standards without having to completely rebuild them.

Everyone smile because it’s so exciting!


Traditional seismic design
Traditional Seismic Design more current seismic standards without having to completely rebuild them.

  • Lower stories are stronger than upper stories, meaning it is more prevalent to reinforce taller buildings and higher stories.


Quiz y2
Quiz-y! more current seismic standards without having to completely rebuild them.

4. What is traditional seismic design?

Lower stories are stronger than upper stories, meaning it is more prevalent to reinforce taller buildings and higher stories.


Floor diaphragm
Floor Diaphragm more current seismic standards without having to completely rebuild them.

  • Wooden building floors are made on joints to prevent beams from tipping.


Sliding off foundation
Sliding Off Foundation more current seismic standards without having to completely rebuild them.

  • Older homes can be bolted to their foundation to prevent major damage in an earthquake.


Bridge retrofits
BRIDGE more current seismic standards without having to completely rebuild them.Retrofits


Hot rivet replacement
Hot Rivet Replacement more current seismic standards without having to completely rebuild them.

  • The rivet was replaced with a heat-treated high-strength locator bolt and nut


Lattice beam conversion
Lattice Beam Conversion more current seismic standards without having to completely rebuild them.

  • Beams were replaced with bolted steel plates. Also, face plates were added to the large diagonal beams


Diagonal reinforcement
Diagonal Reinforcement more current seismic standards without having to completely rebuild them.

  • Diagonal box beams are added to the upper and lower decks of the bridges


Expansion rockers
Expansion Rockers more current seismic standards without having to completely rebuild them.

  • allow the bridge expand and contract with temperature changes


Bay bridge structure
Bay Bridge Structure more current seismic standards without having to completely rebuild them.

  • During the October 17, 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake (7.1 on the Richter Scale). A 50-foot section of the bridge collapsed.


Bay bridge retrofit
Bay Bridge Retrofit! more current seismic standards without having to completely rebuild them.

  • the strengthening of bents and columns on the east viaduct and the piers, bents, and trusses


Fill overpass
Fill & Overpass more current seismic standards without having to completely rebuild them.

  • Elevated roadways are built on sections of elevated earth supported with vertical columns


Roads
ROADS! more current seismic standards without having to completely rebuild them.

  • Soil is tested to see if it can hold weight, then asphalt is added


Cypress freeway viaduct collapse
Cypress Freeway more current seismic standards without having to completely rebuild them. Viaduct Collapse

During the Loma Pieta Earthquake, the Cypress Structure collapsed. This roadway was not properly reinforced. After the quake the structure was removed and a new roadway was built.


Overpasses
Overpasses more current seismic standards without having to completely rebuild them.

  • Pillars:

    • Spiral steel girders support columns and prevent bending of steel rods in the highway

Construction of Pillars


Earthquake 0bengineering

  • Add size and weight to bridge’s footing more current seismic standards without having to completely rebuild them.

  • Anchor with metal rods (pilings)

  • Jacket of steel around column

  • Thick cables help hold together

Top: Bridge Components

Left: Cable System


Omg it s underwater tubes
OMG! It’s more current seismic standards without having to completely rebuild them.UNDERWATER TUBES!

It makes you all giddy! 


Underwater tubes safety
Underwater Tubes Safety more current seismic standards without having to completely rebuild them.

  • depend on soil conditions, the materials used, and the maximum predicted earthquake expected.


Bart yay
BART! yay! more current seismic standards without having to completely rebuild them.

  • BART trans-bay tube was constructed at the bottom of San Francisco Bay


What does bart have
What does BART have? more current seismic standards without having to completely rebuild them.

  • two inner tunnels

  • a central tunnel

  • an outer oval shell encompassing the three inner tubes


Earthquake 0bengineering
Quiz! more current seismic standards without having to completely rebuild them.

5. _____ trans-bay tube was constructed at the bottom of San Francisco Bay.

BART! [gasp!]


The end
THE END more current seismic standards without having to completely rebuild them.


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