Treaty of versailles
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Treaty of Versailles. Members and Representatives. Members and Reps: “Five European Great Powers” Austria- ruler Prussia- ruler Russia- ruler Great Britain- foreign minister France- foreign minister. Goals. Established lasting peace and stability in Europe

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Treaty of Versailles

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Treaty of Versailles

Members and Representatives

  • Members and Reps: “Five European Great Powers”

  • Austria- ruler

  • Prussia- ruler

  • Russia- ruler

  • Great Britain- foreign minister

  • France- foreign minister


  • Established lasting peace and stability in Europe

  • Prevent future French aggression

  • Restore balance of power

  • Restore royal families to thrones

Actions Taken

  • Formed the kingdom of the Netherlands

  • Created the German Confederation

  • Recognized independence of Switzerland

  • Added Genoa to the Kingdom of Sardinia

  • Required France to return territories conquered by Napoleon (but left France a major power)

  • Affirmed the principle of legitimacy


Short term:

  • Conservatives regained control of governments

  • Triggered revolts in colonies

    Long term:

  • Created an age of peace in Europe

  • Diminished the power of France

  • Increased the power of Britain and Prussia

  • Sparked the growth of nationalism

Explain Klemens von Metternich’s efforts to create peace and stability in Europe (balance of power, Concert of Europe)

  • Sought to maintain peace between European nations by creating a balance of power among rival countries so no country would be a threat to the others.

  • Set up a series of alliances called the Concert of Europe to prevent revolutions, which required nations to help one another if a revolution erupted.

Europe Faces Revolutions

1.French citizens’ armies win their revolution for liberty and equality


  • fueled nationalist movements and revolutions throughout Europe

2. Greeks revolt against the Ottoman Turks.


  • a joint British, French and Russian fleet defeated the Ottomans

  • Greece gains its independence

3. Nationalist groups in Budapest, Prague, and Vienna demand independence and self- government.


  • Leads to the forced resignation of Metternich

  • Triggers liberal uprisings throughout the German states

    • Revolutionaries’ failure to unite eventually leads to a return of conservatism

4. Charles X tries to set up an absolute monarchy in France.


  • Riots break out which force Charles to flee to Britain

  • Was replaced with Louis- Philippe

    • A supporter of liberal reforms

5. Paris mobs overthrow monarchy of Louis Philippe.


  • A republican government is set up

  • Factions turn to violence, resulting in bloody battles

6. Louis- Napoleon Bonaparte is elected president of France and later assumes the title of Emperor Napoleon III


  • Under his strong rule, prosperity, peace and stability are restored in France

7. In the Crimean War, Czar Nicholas I threatens to take over part of the Ottoman Empire


  • Russia was defeated by combined forces of France, Great Britain, Sardinia, and the Ottomans

  • After the war, Alexander II began to modernize Russia

8. Alexander II issues the Edict of Emancipation


  • Serfs were legally free but remained tied to the land though debts

Nationalism Case Study: Italy and Germany

How did nationalism lead to the breakup of these empires?

  • Austro- Hungarian

  • Nationalists disputes led to the division of the empire into two states, Austria and Hungary.

  • After WWI the empire divided into separate nation states.

    2. Russian

  • Nationalist feeling of non- Russian peoples fueled by Russification weakened the empire which fell as a result of war and revolution.

    3. Ottoman Empire

  • Conservative Turks, angered by the Ottoman policy of granting equal citizenship to nationalist groups caused tension that weakened and eventually broke up the empire.

How did each of the following help unify Italy?

4. Camillo di Cavour

  • Prime minister of the Sardinian king

  • Worked to expand the empire

  • Through war, alliances, and help of nationalist rebels he eventually unified Italy

    5. Giuseppe Garibaldi

  • Captured Sicily and united the southern areas of Italy he conquered with the kingdom of Piedmont- Sardinia

    6. King Victor Emmanuel

  • Pulled together northern and southern regions of Italy and took over the Papal states unifying Italy

How did each of the following lead to German unification?

7. Policy of realpolitik

  • This policy of though politics allowed Bismarck to expand Prussia and achieve dominance over Germany.

    8. Seven Week’s War

  • Victory over Austria gave Prussia control over northern Germany.

    9. Franco- Prussian War

  • Victory over France motivated southern Germany to accept Prussian leadership.

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