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Parallel Session 5A: Gender Issues in Post-Primary Education Negotiating the Interface between Upper Secondary and Higher Education in sub-Saharan Africa: The Gender Dimensions Grace Bunyi. Objectives of the Study.

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Parallel Session 5A: Gender Issues in Post-Primary Education Negotiating the Interface betweenUpper Secondary and Higher Education in sub-Saharan Africa: The Gender Dimensions Grace Bunyi

objectives of the study
Objectives of the Study
  • the nature and extent of the gender inequities in the transition between upper secondary (US) and higher education (HE) in SSA;
  • the nature and extent of the gender inequities in participation in HE
  • the obstacles that prevent girls and women from transiting to, and participating effectively in HE;
objectives of the study contd
Objectives of the Study contd.
  • interventions implemented to enhance gender equity and equality in US and HE
  • Case studies of promising approaches to the education of girls and women
  • Recommendations – policy and program
findings transition
Findings - Transition
  • Lower transition rates for females generally
  • Particularly lower transition rates for females from socio-economically deprived communities
  • Women transit more into ‘female profession’ programs such as primary teacher education
  • Very low female transition into SMT TIVET and University programs
  • Higher female transition to private than to public universities
findings contd obstacles
Findings Contd. - Obstacles

The School System:

  • Gender inequities in the feeder education system
  • Poor quality secondary schools for girls
  • Girls’ poor access to and participation in SMT in primary and secondary education
findings contd obstacles1
Findings Contd. - Obstacles

The upper secondary-higher education interface

  • Gate-keeping national examinations
  • Poor linkage between secondary and higher education
findings contd obstacles2
Findings Contd. - Obstacles

The higher education system

  • Women unfriendly institutional environments
  • Lack of articulation between HE curricula and the labor market
  • Lack of, and ineffective use of, sex-disaggregated data for policy and planning
findings contd obstacles3
Findings Contd. - Obstacles

Cross-cutting factors:

  • Socio-economic - poverty
  • Socio-cultural – beliefs, norms & practices
  • Education system – insufficient places & ineffective implementation of policies to address gender inequities
  • Contextual factors – HIV and AIDs
findings contd interventions
Findings Contd. - Interventions


  • Sector wide gender in education policies
  • Re-entry for school girl mothers
  • Free primary (& secondary) education
  • Affirmative action e.g. lower admission cut-off points for females
findings contd interventions1
Findings Contd. - Interventions


  • Gender mainstreaming
  • Empowerment programs
  • Girls’ friendly school environments
  • Gender responsive curricula
  • Outreach programs
findings contd interventions2
Findings Contd. - Interventions

Programs Contd.

  • Girls’ only remedial courses and US-HE bridging programs
  • Increasing number of women teachers, lecturers and managers
  • Boarding facilities for girls
  • Women only institutions
  • Gender sensitization
  • Increase access of girls, especially from marginalized communities, to good quality primary and secondary schools
  • Strengthen the teaching & learning of SMT at primary and secondary school levels with a special focus on girls
  • Develop and effectively implement comprehensive education sector wide gender in education policies
recommendations contd
Recommendations contd.
  • Implement AA policies ensuring targeting of the areas of greatest gender disparities
  • Implement HE institutions specific gender policies with regard to GBV & SH and gender imbalance among lecturers and management
  • Ensure articulation of HE curricula with the needs of the labor market
  • Build capacities for gender at all levels
recommendations contd1
Recommendations contd.
  • Adopt participatory approaches, partnerships and collaborations in addressing gender issues
  • Institutionalize the practice of collecting, analyzing and using sex disaggregated data on all aspects of education
  • Scale up promising interventions
  • Mainstream gender
  • Thank you for your attention