Parallel Session 5A: Gender Issues in Post-Primary Education
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Parallel Session 5A: Gender Issues in Post-Primary Education Negotiating the Interface between Upper Secondary and Higher Education in sub-Saharan Africa: The Gender Dimensions Grace Bunyi. Objectives of the Study.

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Objectives of the Study

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Objectives of the study

Parallel Session 5A: Gender Issues in Post-Primary Education Negotiating the Interface betweenUpper Secondary and Higher Education in sub-Saharan Africa: The Gender Dimensions Grace Bunyi


Objectives of the study

Objectives of the Study

  • the nature and extent of the gender inequities in the transition between upper secondary (US) and higher education (HE) in SSA;

  • the nature and extent of the gender inequities in participation in HE

  • the obstacles that prevent girls and women from transiting to, and participating effectively in HE;


Objectives of the study contd

Objectives of the Study contd.

  • interventions implemented to enhance gender equity and equality in US and HE

  • Case studies of promising approaches to the education of girls and women

  • Recommendations – policy and program


Findings transition

Findings - Transition

  • Lower transition rates for females generally

  • Particularly lower transition rates for females from socio-economically deprived communities

  • Women transit more into ‘female profession’ programs such as primary teacher education

  • Very low female transition into SMT TIVET and University programs

  • Higher female transition to private than to public universities


Findings contd obstacles

Findings Contd. - Obstacles

The School System:

  • Gender inequities in the feeder education system

  • Poor quality secondary schools for girls

  • Girls’ poor access to and participation in SMT in primary and secondary education


Findings contd obstacles1

Findings Contd. - Obstacles

The upper secondary-higher education interface

  • Gate-keeping national examinations

  • Poor linkage between secondary and higher education


Findings contd obstacles2

Findings Contd. - Obstacles

The higher education system

  • Women unfriendly institutional environments

  • Lack of articulation between HE curricula and the labor market

  • Lack of, and ineffective use of, sex-disaggregated data for policy and planning


Findings contd obstacles3

Findings Contd. - Obstacles

Cross-cutting factors:

  • Socio-economic - poverty

  • Socio-cultural – beliefs, norms & practices

  • Education system – insufficient places & ineffective implementation of policies to address gender inequities

  • Contextual factors – HIV and AIDs


Findings contd interventions

Findings Contd. - Interventions

Polices

  • Sector wide gender in education policies

  • Re-entry for school girl mothers

  • Free primary (& secondary) education

  • Affirmative action e.g. lower admission cut-off points for females


Findings contd interventions1

Findings Contd. - Interventions

Programs

  • Gender mainstreaming

  • Empowerment programs

  • Girls’ friendly school environments

  • Gender responsive curricula

  • Outreach programs


Findings contd interventions2

Findings Contd. - Interventions

Programs Contd.

  • Girls’ only remedial courses and US-HE bridging programs

  • Increasing number of women teachers, lecturers and managers

  • Boarding facilities for girls

  • Women only institutions

  • Gender sensitization


Recommendations

Recommendations

  • Increase access of girls, especially from marginalized communities, to good quality primary and secondary schools

  • Strengthen the teaching & learning of SMT at primary and secondary school levels with a special focus on girls

  • Develop and effectively implement comprehensive education sector wide gender in education policies


Recommendations contd

Recommendations contd.

  • Implement AA policies ensuring targeting of the areas of greatest gender disparities

  • Implement HE institutions specific gender policies with regard to GBV & SH and gender imbalance among lecturers and management

  • Ensure articulation of HE curricula with the needs of the labor market

  • Build capacities for gender at all levels


Recommendations contd1

Recommendations contd.

  • Adopt participatory approaches, partnerships and collaborations in addressing gender issues

  • Institutionalize the practice of collecting, analyzing and using sex disaggregated data on all aspects of education

  • Scale up promising interventions

  • Mainstream gender


Finally

Finally

  • Thank you for your attention


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