Chapter 2 computer systems
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 18

Chapter 2: Computer Systems PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 88 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Chapter 2: Computer Systems. Computer Hardware. The physical pieces of a computer system, such as a central processing unit (CPU), a microprocessor, a printer, a disk drive, or a modem Something you can touch. Evolution of Computer Systems.

Download Presentation

Chapter 2: Computer Systems

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Chapter 2 computer systems

Chapter 2: Computer Systems


Computer hardware

Computer Hardware

  • The physical pieces of a computer system, such as a central processing unit (CPU), a microprocessor, a printer, a disk drive, or a modem

  • Something you can touch


Evolution of computer systems

Evolution of Computer Systems

  • First Generation - 1946-1959 - vacuum tubes, rotating drum memory

  • Second Generation - 1959-1964 - transistors, magnetic core memory

  • Third Generation - 1964-1979 - integrated circuits, semiconductor memory, operating systems

  • Fourth Generation - 1979-present - LSI and VLSI circuits, communications


Basic components of computers

Basic Components of Computers

  • Input/Output

  • Computer Memory

  • Arithmetic/Logical Unit

  • Computer Files

  • Control Unit


Chapter 2 computer systems

CPU

Control Unit

Arithmetic/ Logical Unit

Memory

Output

Input

Files


Stored program concept

Stored Program Concept

  • The concept of preparing a precise list of exactly what the computer is to do (this list is called a program), loading or storing this program in the memory of the computer, and then letting the control unit carry out the program at electronic speed. The program must be in a form that the control unit of the computer has been built to understand.


Types of computers

Types of Computers

  • Microcomputers

  • Workstations

  • Midrange computers (minicomputers)

  • Mainframes

  • Supercomputers

  • These categories are listed in general order of increasing size, power, and cost


Network computer netpc

Network Computer / NetPC

  • Basic idea of both is a stripped down, less expensive PC for users who will always be connected to a network

  • Network Computer would have minimal memory, processor, disk storage (perhaps no hard drive)

  • NetPC (Microsoft) would be more powerful so that Windows could be implemented locally


Risc chips

RISC Chips

  • Reduced Instruction Set Computing

  • By working with a reduced instruction set, designers were able to create a smaller, faster chip than had been possible previously

  • Basis for HP 9000, IBM RISC/6000, Sun SPARCsystem, other high-powered workstations


Cache memory

Cache Memory

  • Very high speed, high cost storage unit

  • Used as an intermediary between pieces of the computer that operate at quite different speeds

  • Example -- between the control unit (microprocessor) and main memory

  • Example -- between disk drive and data channel


Controller

Controller

  • A hardware device to link input/output or file devices to the CPU and memory of large computer systems

  • A highly specialized processor which manages the operation of its attached devices to free the CPU from these tasks


Data channel

Data Channel

  • A specialized input/output processor (a computer) that takes over the function of device communication from the CPU

  • The role of the data channel is to correct for the speed mismatch between the slow peripheral devices and the very fast CPU


Symmetric multiprocessor

Symmetric Multiprocessor

  • Multiprocessor machine in which all of the processors (CPUs) are identical, with each processor operating independently of the others

  • This design technique is used in most mainframes and an increasing number of midrange machines


Parallel processor pp

Parallel Processor (PP)

  • A multiprocessor configuration (multiple CPUs installed as part of a single computer system) designed to give a separate piece of the same program to each of the processors so that work on the program can proceed in parallel on the separate pieces


Massively parallel processor mpp

Massively Parallel Processor (MPP)

  • A parallel processing computer with some large number of parallel processors

  • 32 or more parallel CPUs if the different CPUs are capable of performing different instructions at the same time

  • 1000 or more parallel CPUs if the different CPUs must all carry out the same instruction at the same time


Changing nature of hardware

Changing Nature of Hardware

  • Decreasing price/performance ratio -- faster and cheaper

  • Increasing miniaturization

  • Increasing multimedia (data, video, sound)

  • More plug-and-play and portability

  • Greater management complexity due to linking of distributed, cross-platform technologies


The information technology industry

The Information Technology Industry

  • The Information Technology industry is the largest industry in the world, by far.

  • Let’s look at the primary players.


Chapter 2 computer systems

Top IS Companies in the World, 1996


  • Login