Es2002 business communication
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ES2002 Business Communication. Intercultural Communication. Definition of culture.

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ES2002 Business Communication

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Es2002 business communication

ES2002 Business Communication

Intercultural Communication


Definition of culture

Definition of culture

“ Culture is the coherent, learned, shared view a group of people has about life’s concerns that ranks what is important, instills attitudes about what things are appropriate, and prescribes behaviour, given that some things have more significance than others.”

Source: Beamer’s & Varner’s Intercultural Communication in the Global Workplace

ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication


Es2002 business communication

ClothingFoodBehaviour

AttitudesValuesBeliefsMeaningsNorms

Photo by Cliff Wassman

ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication


Es2002 business communication

“ Very often the way others do things is not different out of stupidity or carelessness or incompetence or malice … Most people do what seems the right thing to do at the time … And the judgment of what is right is rooted in beliefs, values, attitudes, as well as habit, tradition, and accepted norms.”

Mole (1996)

ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication


Outline

Outline

  • Fundamental cultural orientations

  • Nonverbal communication

  • Different cultural groups

  • Tips for intercultural communication skills

ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication


Fundamental cultural orientations

Fundamental cultural orientations

  • How contexting and facesaving affect communication

  • How the individual is viewed in relation to the group

  • How time is perceived

  • How status is accorded

  • How decisions are made

ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication


Es2002 business communication

Contexting and face saving

Contexting and face saving

  • High context

    • Low reliance on verbal communication

    • More reliance on context, nonverbal cues, implicit information shared

    • Indirect and rather vague

  • Low context

    • High reliance on verbal communication

    • Less reliance on non-verbal communication

    • Direct, precise, and explicit

Cultural orientations

High context – High face saving

Low context – Low face saving

ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication


Es2002 business communication

Individual / group

Individual / group

  • Individualist

    • The individual takes centre stage

    • Independence highly valued

    • A single person can earn credit / blame

  • Collectivist

    • The individual seen as part of the group

    • High degree of interdependence

    • Credit / blame goes to the group

Cultural orientations

ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication


Es2002 business communication

Time

Time

  • Monochronic-time cultures

    • High emphasis on schedules, punctuality and promptness

    • Schedules take precedence over interpersonal relations

  • Polychronic-time cultures

    • Time viewed as more fluid and strict schedules not observed

    • Preset schedules are subordinate to interpersonal relations

Cultural orientations

ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication


Es2002 business communication

Status

Status

  • Accorded based on individual achievements

    • Organizations less hierarchical

    • Titles used only when relevant to competence

  • Ascribed by virtue of age, family background, profession

    • Organizations more highly hierarchical

    • Extensive use of titles

Cultural Orientations

ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication


Es2002 business communication

Decision making

Decision making

  • Discussing points

  • Seeking group consensus

  • Consulting organisations in negotiations

Cultural orientations

ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication


Decision making in meetings

Decision making in meetings

  • A “meeting” is a cultural concept.

  • Formal/informal? Personal/professional?

  • Who decides? Top-level executives only or with consultations with all employees?

  • In many corporate meetings, gender relations are also prominent (e.g., male executives make decisions; female executives are the bosses; female participants do not have a voice)

ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication


Non verbal communication

Non-verbal communication

  • Body language

    • Posture

    • Head movements

  • Eye contact

  • Laughter

  • Touch

  • Physical space

ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication


Different cultural groups

Different cultural groups

IMPORTANT

Statements made mere generalizations

Norms of a culture change

Not all differences in patterns of communication can be explained by national cultures

  • National

  • Ethnic

  • Corporate

  • Religious

  • Gender

  • Socio-economic

  • Profession

ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication


Corporate culture

Corporate culture

  • Can national culture completely explain this?

    A Malaysian woman is a Senior Executive in an American multinational company based in Singapore. Educated in Malaysia and the UK, her manner of speaking is polite but straightforward.

  • In a globalized world, corporate culture is usually hybrid

  • Staff are usually exposed to different cultural orientations

  • Lesson: be careful about making simplistic statements.

ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication


So beware

So, beware!

  • Do not stereotype cultures

    For example,

    All Japanese are…

    Americans are…

    She is Malaysian. She must be…

ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication


Conclusion tips

Conclusion: TIPS

  • Develop a sense of cultural awareness.

  • Do away with ethnocentrism.

  • Learn to adapt.

  • Be more tolerant.

  • Listen carefully and empathise.

  • Look beyond the superficial.

  • Do not lapse into your own language while in the presence of others who do not speak it.

  • Take responsibility for the communication.

ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication


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