Week 6 lecture
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 33

Week 6 Lecture: PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 63 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Week 6 Lecture:. Television in America. Defining Features of TV. universal medium, now in 99% of all U.S. homes dominant source of news and entertainment on 7 hours a day in each household most viewers watch 4 hours daily Expensive to make: one-hour drama, $1.5 million per show.

Download Presentation

Week 6 Lecture:

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Week 6 lecture

Week 6 Lecture:

Television in America


Week 6 lecture

Defining Features of TV

  • universal medium, now in 99% of all U.S. homes

  • dominant source of news and entertainment

  • on 7 hours a day in each household

  • most viewers watch 4 hours daily

  • Expensive to make: one-hour drama, $1.5 million per show


Week 6 lecture

All Family Members Tune In

(Time Spent Per Day In Hours)

1995

2003

1995

2003

1995

2003

1995

2003

Source: Nielsen Media Research, NTI Annual Averages


Week 6 lecture

Advertisers Spend More Money on Television

Television Surpassed Newspapers in 1994, and the Lead Has Widened Ever Since

2002 (In Millions)

Television

Newspapers

Direct Mail

Radio

Yellow Pages

Magazines

Source: Universal McCann


Week 6 lecture

Advertisers Spend More Money on Local Broadcast Television than Network, Cable and Syndication

Television Components 2002 (In Millions)

Network TV

Station TV

Cable TV

Syndication TV*

Source: Universal McCann*Includes PAX, UPN & WB


Week 6 lecture

Total TV Advertising Spending

Total UK Ad Spend 2003:

£3.7 Billion = $6.6 Billion

Total US Ad Spend 2002: $58.4 Billion

BBC License Fee Income:

£2.4 Billion =$4.2 Billion


Week 6 lecture

Impact on Media

  • Books: General decline, go for more popular/superstar authors and subjects

  • Newspapers: fewer papers, more graphics, less text, less hard news

  • Magazines: demassify (specialize)

  • Music: Success depends on videos/movies

  • Movies: Become more specialized, lucrative

  • Radio: demassify (specialize)


Networks

Networks

  • 1. Older broadcast networks NBC, CBS, ABC.


Networks1

Networks

  • 1. Older broadcast networks

    • NBC

    • CBS

    • ABC

  • 2. Newer networks:

    • Fox (1985)

    • WB

    • UPN (1995)

    • Pax (1998)

Merge into CW (2006)

Becomes Ion Television (2007)


Week 6 lecture

Television Ratings and Shares

Rating = ratio of station viewers to all people in the market

Share = ratio of viewers viewing station relative to number of people in market actually watching TV at same time

Example: 500,000 people in market. 200,000 watching TV. 100,000 watching station KBLA

ratings = 100,000/500,000 or 20% rating

share = 100,000/200,000 or a 50% share


Week 6 lecture

Getting Programs on the Air

LOCAL:

The biggest expenses, revenue, staff, and production efforts all go into news. Local stations usually produce only local news, interviews, and sports shows

National:

On the network level, efforts go into prime time shows (8-11 p.m., EST). New ideas start with a “pilot” show; if well received, more shows are ordered. In a year a network produces about 25 pilots.


Week 6 lecture

History: 1950s

  • In 1952 FCC reserves 12 VHF and 70 UHF channels for TV use.

  • Early TV uses radio as model.

  • Video tape solves program “storage” problems.

  • Color broadcasting begins in the late 1950s.

  • Live TV shows, experimental programming, and high-quality drama create television’s “golden years.”


Week 6 lecture

History: 1960s

  • TVs in 95 percent of U.S. homes

  • Network news expands from 15 to 30 minutes; most people begin relying on TV as their major news source.

  • TV journalism gets high marks (coverage of JFK, King, and RFK assassinations, Civil Rights movement, Apollo space program, etc.).

  • PBS born with the Public Broadcasting Act of 1967.


Week 6 lecture

History: 1970s

  • Surgeon General’s study finds modest link between heavy TV viewing and violence among some children.

  • Citizen action groups form to involve themselves with TV content and FCC policies.

  • FCC adopts Prime Time Access Rule, mandates no network programming between 7:30-8 pm (E.S.T.).

  • Cable TV surfaces as serious competitor.


Week 6 lecture

History: 1980s - Present

  • Three new networks (Fox, UPN, and WBN) increase audience and ad share erosion of original broadcast networks.

  • Cable expands to 68% of U.S. homes; special-interest channels, PPV, and premium movie channels now combine to make cable TV a full-fledged competitor to original networks.


Week 6 lecture

Advent of VCRs

VCRs in 90% of U.S. homes by 2000; effects are:

Cassette rentals become multibillion dollar industry.

VCRs encourage trend toward timeshifting.

Advertisers worry about 3 new phenomena:

  • zapping commercials,

  • zipping through commercials,

  • grazing through channels with a remote control.


Week 6 lecture

Telecommunications Act of 1996

  • An FCC rule creates first TV program rating system.

  • It also creates the “V-chip,” a built-in TV device to help parents regulate program viewing for kids.

  • On the programming front, high audience draw and cheap-to-make shows debut: news magazine series, revived game shows, and “reality TV.”


Week 6 lecture

Broadcast TV Organization

  • FCC licenses stations in individual communities called “markets.” There are 210 TV markets in the U.S. of varying sizes.

  • Seven networks supply programs to affiliates: ABC, CBS, NBC, Fox, UPN, WBN, and Paxnet.

  • PBS serves the non-commercial TV system.

  • Independents are stations with no network affiliation.


Week 6 lecture

TV Organization by Function

  • Production: programming from three major sources:

    • local origination (news, sports, community affairs)

    • syndicated programming (Oprah, Jeopardy, etc.)

    • network programming (for affiliate stations)

  • Distribution: three major distribution methods

    • broadcast networks

    • cable networks

    • syndication companies

  • Exhibition

    • VHF channels, 2-13

    • UHF channels, 14-69


Scheduling tactics

Scheduling Tactics

  • Zeroing in on your audience

  • Counterprogramming

  • Hammock Effect

  • Stacking

  • Stunting


Week 6 lecture

Ownership

By 1998, all but one network was under a corporate flag

NBCowner: General Electric

ABC owner: Walt Disney Corporation

CBS owner: Viacom (Sumner Redstone)

Fox owner: Rupert Murdoch’s News Corporation

CW owner: CBS and Warner Bros.

The Telecommunications Act of 1996 allows a firm to own unlimited stations, provided their combined reach does not exceed 35 percent of the U.S. population.


Week 6 lecture

CABLE NETWORKS

  • Program sources:

    • original productionsCNN, ESPN, C-SPAN

    • moviesHBO, Showtime, Cinemax

    • syndicated programsnetwork reruns, game shows

  • Revenue sources:

    • advertising

    • carriage feesfee network charges local system to carry their programming

    • subscription fees


Technology drives media fragmentation

Technology Drives Media Fragmentation


Technology drives media fragmentation1

Technology Drives Media Fragmentation

  • VCR

  • Cable Television

  • Digital Broadcast/Internet

  • Satellite Transmission

  • Tivo/DVR

  • Internet based television (Hulu)


Fragmentation of primetime network tv audience in 1990s

Fragmentation of Primetime Network TV Audience in 1990s

NBC

18- to 34-year-olds

ABC

Young Families

CBS

35- to 49-year-olds

FOX

Urban young adults (male)

18- to 34-year-old urban blacks

UPN

WB

Teens


Fall 2001 schedule

NBC

8:00Friends

9:00Will and Grace

9:30Just Shoot Me

10:00 ER

Fall 2001 Schedule

UPN

8:00The Hughleys

8:30One on One

9:00The Parkers

9:30Girlfriends


Fall 2001 schedule1

NBC

8:00Friends

9:00Will and Grace

9:30Just Shoot Me

10:00 ER

Fall 2001 Schedule

UPN

8:00The Hughleys

8:30One on One

9:00The Parkers

9:30Girlfriends

3 Black Characters across all shows

3 White Characters across all shows


Media conglomeration number of corporations dominating mass media

Media Conglomeration: Number of Corporations Dominating Mass Media

  • 198350 Companies

  • 198729 Companies

  • 199023 Companies

  • 199710 Companies

  • 20006 (3 foreign owned)

  • 20068


Largest media mergers dollars

Largest Media Mergers (dollars)

  • 1983340 million

  • 199719 billion when ABC merged with Disney

  • 2000350 billion when Time-Warner merged with AOL


Week 6 lecture

Top 20 Network Shows 2003

Top 10 TV Programs - Regularly Scheduled (Rating)1 AMERICAN IDOL-TUESDAY FOX 15.52 AMERICAN IDOL-WEDNESDAY FOX 15.33 DANCING WITH THE STARS ABC 12.34 DANCING W/STARS RESULTS ABC 11.45 MENTALIST, THE CBS 10.05 NBC SUNDAY NIGHT FOOTBALL NBC 10.07 CSI CBS 8.18 NCIS CBS 8.09 60 MINUTES CBS 7.69 SURVIVOR: GABON CBS 7.6


Week 6 lecture

2008 Top 10 TV Programs - Single Telecast

(Rating)1 FOX SUPER BOWL XLII FOX 02/03/2008 43.12 FOX SUPER BOWL POST GAME FOX 02/03/200830.13 FOX NFC CHAMPIONSHIP FOX 01/20/2008 29.04 SUMMER OLYMPICS TUE PRIME1 NBC08/12/200820.05 FOX NFC PLAYOFF-PST-SUN FOX 01/13/2008 18.85 SUMMER OLYMPICS OPEN CEREMNBC08/08/200818.87 ACADEMY AWARDS ABC 02/24/2008 18.78 SUMMER OLYMPICS SUN PRIME NBC 08/10/200818.19 AFC DIVISIONAL PLAYOFF CBS 01/12/2008 17.99 SUMMER OLYMPICS THU PRIME NBC 08/14/200817.9


Week 6 lecture

Top 10 Broadcast and Cable Programs, October 2009

80 Rank:

103

203

213

221

251

295

304

317


  • Login