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Sexually Transmitted Infections. Biology 3201: Unit 2, Reproduction and Development. What are STIs?. S exually T ransmitted I nfections Transmitted mainly through sexual contact Most caused by viruses or bacteria Most are curable, some only treatable Curable: Can be cured with medication

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sexually transmitted infections

Sexually Transmitted Infections

Biology 3201: Unit 2, Reproduction and Development

what are stis
What are STIs?
  • Sexually Transmitted Infections
  • Transmitted mainly through sexual contact
  • Most caused by viruses or bacteria
  • Most are curable, some only treatable
    • Curable: Can be cured with medication
    • Treatable: NOT curable; but symptoms can be managed with medication
what are they
What are they??
  • The most common (and the ones that you need to know for the purposes of this course) are:
    • HIV/AIDS
    • Chlamydia
    • Hepatitis B
    • Genital Herpes
    • Syphilis
    • Gonorrhea
  • We will take a closer look at each
hiv and aids
HIV and AIDS
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus
  • Causes Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
  • The virus attaches the immune system
    • Level of helper T cells in the blood decreases
    • Makes person more susceptible to a number of different infections
    • The other infection is what makes you sick and can cause death
transmission of hiv
Transmission of HIV
  • Sexual contact
    • Vaginal intercourse
    • Anal/rectal intercourse
    • And oral – genital contact
    • NOT kissing
  • Sharing of needles among drug users
  • Blood transfusions
    • Today most blood is closely screened
  • Breast feeding
aids development
AIDS Development
  • Occurs in 3 stages
  • STAGE A
    • Last for roughly a year
    • No symptoms, but can infect others
    • Remain healthy
  • STAGE B
    • 6 to 8 years
    • When body cannot replace T- cells
slide7

A number of symptoms start to occur

    • Swelling of lymph nodes
    • Weight loss
    • Night sweats
    • Fatigue
    • Fever
    • Diarrhea
    • Infections
slide8

STAGE C:

    • This stage is considered fully developed AIDS
    • Suffers nervous disorders
    • Pneumonia
    • Skin cancer
    • If not appropriate, aggressive treatment, death within 7 to 9 years
chlamydia
Chlamydia
  • Caused by a bacteria called Chlamydia trachomatis
  • In 2001 there were 49000 cases reported in Canada
    • Rising dramatically , 2009 there were 89000 cases
  • Most common in people between age 15 and 24
  • Affects both male an females and can cause serious permanent damage
  • Transmitted through sexual intercourse
    • Vaginal, anal, or oral
    • Do not have to ejaculate
symptoms
Symptoms
  • Known as “silent” infection
    • Asymptomatic
    • If symptoms, may be weeks or months after transmission
  • In Women
    • Abnormal vaginal discharge
    • Burning sensation during urination
    • If not treated, travels up uterus and oviducts and cause PID
      • Pelvic inflammitory disease
      • Severe pelvic and abdominal pain
      • Leads to infertility
slide11

In Men:

    • Discharge from penis
    • Burning sensation when urinating
    • Pain and swelling in both testicles
  • May also affect anus and throat
    • In anus can cause:
      • Rectal pain
      • Discharge
      • bleeding
treatment
Treatment
  • Up to 75% of all chlamydia cases are not detected by the individual unit irreversible damage is done
  • If not treated in females:
    • Ulcers on the cervix
    • Increased risk of aids
    • PID
    • Blocked oviducts
    • Ectopic prenancy
    • infertility
slide14

In Males

    • Blocked/damaged vas deferens
  • Effective, easy tests to hlep diagnose early
    • Successfully with antibiotics
    • No perminant effects
  • NEW CONCERNS
hepatitis b
Hepatitis B
  • An infection that causes by a virus
    • Other types of Hepatitis viruses, only B related to reproductive system
  • Spread through sexual contact, blood transfusions, and exchange of body fluids
  • Causes liver inflamation, vomiting, jaundice, and even death
    • Liver cirrhosis and cancer
  • NO CURE
symptoms1
Symptoms
  • Overall poor health
  • Loss of apetit
  • Nasuea
  • Vomiting
  • Body aches
  • Fever
  • Dark urine
  • May be entirely asymptomatic
slide17

Infection tends to have periods of liver inflamation and jaundice and periods of no symptoms

  • Vaccines for all 3 strains of hepatitis are available
genital herpes
Genital Herpes
  • Viral infection. Two types:
    • Herpes Simplex 1 (HSV1)
    • Herpes Simplex 2 (HSV2)
  • HSV 1
    • Causes cold sores and fever blisters around the mouth
  • HSV2
    • Genital herpes and is acquired through sexual contact
symptoms2
Symptoms
  • Tingling or ithcing
  • Blisters on gentials, buttocks, thighs, or internal tissues that rupture
  • Flu like symptoms
  • Outbreaks triggered by fever, stress, sunlight, intercourse or foods
syphilis
Syphilis
  • Caused by a bacteria called Treponemapallidum
  • Infection occurs in 3 stages:
    • Stage 1
      • Ulcerated sores with hard edges appearing at the site
    • Stage 2
      • Rash appears
      • Could be anywhere on skin
      • Usually on palms of hands and soles of feet
    • Stage 3
      • Affects cardiovascular and nervous system
slide23

Stage 3 symptoms can include:

    • Mental illness
    • Blindness
    • A shuffled walk
    • Heart disease
    • Large ulcers called Gummas on the skin or internal organs
  • Can be cured with antibiotics
gonorrhea
Gonorrhea
  • Caused by bacteria called Neiserria gonorrhoea
  • Can cause infection of the urethra, cervix, rectom and throat
  • Symptoms
    • Pain during urination
    • Greenish yellow discharge from urethra
    • Blocked oviducts
    • Infections of joints, heart valves and brain
  • Same in males and females
  • Treatable with antibiotics
prevention
Prevention
  • Save sex
  • Education
  • Abstinence
  • Limit number of sexual partner
    • Think of it this way....... If you have sex with them you are having sex with everyone bodily fluids that they had sex with
  • Only 100% safe method is abstinence
slide29

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RrzuqhlqMvk

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RVOSTP8FaeU

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