Sexually transmitted infections
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Sexually Transmitted Infections. Biology 3201: Unit 2, Reproduction and Development. What are STIs?. S exually T ransmitted I nfections Transmitted mainly through sexual contact Most caused by viruses or bacteria Most are curable, some only treatable Curable: Can be cured with medication

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Sexually transmitted infections

Sexually Transmitted Infections

Biology 3201: Unit 2, Reproduction and Development


What are stis

What are STIs?

  • Sexually Transmitted Infections

  • Transmitted mainly through sexual contact

  • Most caused by viruses or bacteria

  • Most are curable, some only treatable

    • Curable: Can be cured with medication

    • Treatable: NOT curable; but symptoms can be managed with medication


What are they

What are they??

  • The most common (and the ones that you need to know for the purposes of this course) are:

    • HIV/AIDS

    • Chlamydia

    • Hepatitis B

    • Genital Herpes

    • Syphilis

    • Gonorrhea

  • We will take a closer look at each


Hiv and aids

HIV and AIDS

  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus

  • Causes Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

  • The virus attaches the immune system

    • Level of helper T cells in the blood decreases

    • Makes person more susceptible to a number of different infections

    • The other infection is what makes you sick and can cause death


Transmission of hiv

Transmission of HIV

  • Sexual contact

    • Vaginal intercourse

    • Anal/rectal intercourse

    • And oral – genital contact

    • NOT kissing

  • Sharing of needles among drug users

  • Blood transfusions

    • Today most blood is closely screened

  • Breast feeding


Aids development

AIDS Development

  • Occurs in 3 stages

  • STAGE A

    • Last for roughly a year

    • No symptoms, but can infect others

    • Remain healthy

  • STAGE B

    • 6 to 8 years

    • When body cannot replace T- cells


Sexually transmitted infections

  • A number of symptoms start to occur

    • Swelling of lymph nodes

    • Weight loss

    • Night sweats

    • Fatigue

    • Fever

    • Diarrhea

    • Infections


Sexually transmitted infections

  • STAGE C:

    • This stage is considered fully developed AIDS

    • Suffers nervous disorders

    • Pneumonia

    • Skin cancer

    • If not appropriate, aggressive treatment, death within 7 to 9 years


Chlamydia

Chlamydia

  • Caused by a bacteria called Chlamydia trachomatis

  • In 2001 there were 49000 cases reported in Canada

    • Rising dramatically , 2009 there were 89000 cases

  • Most common in people between age 15 and 24

  • Affects both male an females and can cause serious permanent damage

  • Transmitted through sexual intercourse

    • Vaginal, anal, or oral

    • Do not have to ejaculate


Symptoms

Symptoms

  • Known as “silent” infection

    • Asymptomatic

    • If symptoms, may be weeks or months after transmission

  • In Women

    • Abnormal vaginal discharge

    • Burning sensation during urination

    • If not treated, travels up uterus and oviducts and cause PID

      • Pelvic inflammitory disease

      • Severe pelvic and abdominal pain

      • Leads to infertility


Sexually transmitted infections

  • In Men:

    • Discharge from penis

    • Burning sensation when urinating

    • Pain and swelling in both testicles

  • May also affect anus and throat

    • In anus can cause:

      • Rectal pain

      • Discharge

      • bleeding


Treatment

Treatment

  • Up to 75% of all chlamydia cases are not detected by the individual unit irreversible damage is done

  • If not treated in females:

    • Ulcers on the cervix

    • Increased risk of aids

    • PID

    • Blocked oviducts

    • Ectopic prenancy

    • infertility


Sexually transmitted infections

  • In Males

    • Blocked/damaged vas deferens

  • Effective, easy tests to hlep diagnose early

    • Successfully with antibiotics

    • No perminant effects

  • NEW CONCERNS


Hepatitis b

Hepatitis B

  • An infection that causes by a virus

    • Other types of Hepatitis viruses, only B related to reproductive system

  • Spread through sexual contact, blood transfusions, and exchange of body fluids

  • Causes liver inflamation, vomiting, jaundice, and even death

    • Liver cirrhosis and cancer

  • NO CURE


Symptoms1

Symptoms

  • Overall poor health

  • Loss of apetit

  • Nasuea

  • Vomiting

  • Body aches

  • Fever

  • Dark urine

  • May be entirely asymptomatic


Sexually transmitted infections

  • Infection tends to have periods of liver inflamation and jaundice and periods of no symptoms

  • Vaccines for all 3 strains of hepatitis are available


Genital herpes

Genital Herpes

  • Viral infection. Two types:

    • Herpes Simplex 1 (HSV1)

    • Herpes Simplex 2 (HSV2)

  • HSV 1

    • Causes cold sores and fever blisters around the mouth

  • HSV2

    • Genital herpes and is acquired through sexual contact


Symptoms2

Symptoms

  • Tingling or ithcing

  • Blisters on gentials, buttocks, thighs, or internal tissues that rupture

  • Flu like symptoms

  • Outbreaks triggered by fever, stress, sunlight, intercourse or foods


Syphilis

Syphilis

  • Caused by a bacteria called Treponemapallidum

  • Infection occurs in 3 stages:

    • Stage 1

      • Ulcerated sores with hard edges appearing at the site

    • Stage 2

      • Rash appears

      • Could be anywhere on skin

      • Usually on palms of hands and soles of feet

    • Stage 3

      • Affects cardiovascular and nervous system


Sexually transmitted infections

  • Stage 3 symptoms can include:

    • Mental illness

    • Blindness

    • A shuffled walk

    • Heart disease

    • Large ulcers called Gummas on the skin or internal organs

  • Can be cured with antibiotics


Gonorrhea

Gonorrhea

  • Caused by bacteria called Neiserria gonorrhoea

  • Can cause infection of the urethra, cervix, rectom and throat

  • Symptoms

    • Pain during urination

    • Greenish yellow discharge from urethra

    • Blocked oviducts

    • Infections of joints, heart valves and brain

  • Same in males and females

  • Treatable with antibiotics


Prevention

Prevention

  • Save sex

  • Education

  • Abstinence

  • Limit number of sexual partner

    • Think of it this way....... If you have sex with them you are having sex with everyone bodily fluids that they had sex with

  • Only 100% safe method is abstinence


Sexually transmitted infections

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