Political parties
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Political Parties. Political Party. A group of persons who seek to control government through the winning of elections and the holding of public office. Political Parties. Major party – United states has two major parties, the Republicans and Democrats

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Political parties

Political Parties


Political party

Political Party

A group of persons who seek to control government through the winning of elections and the holding of public office.


Political parties1

Political Parties

Major party – United states has two major parties, the Republicans and Democrats

Minor party- any political party that is not Democrats or Republicans


Who am i what did i do and what political party am i in

Who am I? What did I do? And what political party am I in?


Jaywalking

Jaywalking

Who not to be


What d o political parties do

What Do Political Parties Do?

Parties are the major mechanism behind the development of broad policy and leadership choices.

The vital link between the governing and the governed.


Partisanship

Partisanship

  • A firm allegiance to a political party.

  • Party Politics- Voting for bills, candidates, ideas based almost strictly upon the request of the party.

    • Democrats vote with President Obama

    • Republicans voted with President Bush

      • They each voted against the opposing party.

  • Party in Power – the political party that controls the executive branch


Why the two party system

Why the Two-Party system?

  • Just because we have 2 main parties does not mean they are both in position to become the party of power.

    • Some states always vote Republican

      • Examples?

    • Some states always vote Democratic

      • Examples?


Historical basis

Historical Basis

  • Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists

    • Hamilton vs. Jefferson


Tradition

Tradition

Once established, human institutions are likely to become self-perpetuating.

Because that’s how it started, that’s how it is going to stay.

People accept the idea of a two party system simply because that is how it has always been done.


Electoral system

Electoral System

  • Single-member districts- contests in which only one candidate is elected to each office on the ballot.

    • Winner take all elections

    • Plurality- the person that gains the most of votes, regardless of how many votes are controlled, takes office.

      • This does not need to be a majority.


Electoral system1

Electoral System

Single-member districts discourage minor parties… why?

You can either vote for the winner or the losers, so naturally, most people will vote for a person that has a chance of winning.

Most voters think a vote for a minor party is a wasted vote.


Electoral system2

Electoral System

  • Much of electoral law is purposely written to discourage non-major party candidates.

    • One of the few instances where bipartisanship is encouraged and enacted.

      • Both republicans and democrats working together.

  • In many states it is far more difficult for a minor party to even be listed on the ballot.


Electoral system3

Electoral System


Electoral system4

Electoral System


Electoral system5

Electoral System

  • Bush and Gore in 2000 were on every ballot for President.

    • No other candidates were on every ballot.

    • Only 7 times has a non party candidate made it on every states presidential ballots.

  • Eugene Debs was the first to make it on all ballots.

    • Socialist candidate.

  • More recently Pat Buchanan was on 49 ballots, Ralph Nader was on 43 ballots


American ideological consensus

American Ideological Consensus

  • Americans, over time, have shared many of the same ideals, the same basic principles, and the same patterns of belief.

    • Pluralistic society – One consisting of several distinct cultures and groups.

    • Increasingly the members of various ethnic , racial, religious, and other social groups compete for and share in the exercise of political power.


Common sense reasons

Common Sense Reasons

  • The two party system is simple.

  • Our society is filled with examples of a winner vs. loser mentality… good vs. evil, right vs. wrong, Steelers vs. Ravens.

    • Americans want a Super Bowl not the BCS

  • The easiest way to go from a have-not to a have is to join the other side.


One party systems

One-Party Systems

  • In nearly all dictatorships today, only one political party is allowed.

    • A one-party system is in essence a no party system.

  • A one party system allows for the ruling power to become the only voice that can be heard.

    • All other voices are silenced.


Other types of party systems

One-Party Systems

Modified One-Party Systems where one party regularly wins most elections

One Party Systems where only one party is allowed.

Example:

Dictatorships such as Stalinist Russia

Example:

Republican North and Democratic South until the 1950s.

Other types of party systems


Factors that can influence party membership

Factors that can influence party membership:


Multiparty system

Multiparty System

  • A system in which several major and many lesser parties exist, seriously compete for, and actually win, public office.

    • Various parties are based on particular interest, such as economic class, religious belief, and political ideology.

    • Many countries in Europe use this model.

    • Downfalls?


Multiparty system1

Multiparty System

  • Parties must form coalitions in order to become elected and pass laws.

    • A coalition is a temporary alliance of several groups who come together to form a working majority and so to control a government.


The three historical eras

The Three Historical Eras

The Era of the Democrats, 1800—1860

  • Democratsdominate all but two presidential elections.

  • TheWhigParty emerges in 1834, but declines by the 1850s, electing only two Presidents.

  • The Republican Party is founded in 1854.

    The Era of the Republicans, 1860—1932

  • Republicans dominate all but four presidential elections.

  • The Civil War disables the DemocraticParty for the remainder of the 1800s.

    The Return of the Democrats, 1932—1968

  • Democrats dominate all but two presidential elections.

  • Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt is elected President four times.


Political parties

American Parties: Parties Today

The Start of a New Era: The Era of Divided Government

Since 1968, neither Republicans nor Democrats have dominated the presidency and Congress has often been controlled by the opposing party.

1976–1980

Democrats hold the presidency

Congress is controlled by Democrats

1968–1976

Republicans hold the presidency

Congress is controlled by Democrats

1980–1992

Republicans hold the presidency

Senate controlled by Republicans 1980-1986, controlled by Democrats from 1986 to 1994

1992 – 2000

Democrats hold the presidency

Congress controlled by Republicans, 1994 to present

2000

Republicans hold the presidency

Congress is controlled by Republicans


Political parties

Types of Minor Parties

Ideological Parties

Based on a particular set of beliefs.

Example: LibtertarianParty

Communist Party

Single-issue Parties

Based on one specific public-policy matter.

Example: Free Soil Party

US Marijuana Party

Economic Protest Parties

Do not have a specific set of goals, rather just a voice of economic discontent.

Example: The Greenback Party

Tea Party

Splinter Party

Those parties that split away from a major party to form a small party

Example: “Bull Moose” Progressive Party


Minor parties

Minor Parties


Roles of the minor party

Roles of the Minor Party

“Spoiler Role”

  • Minor party candidates can pull decisive votes away from one of the major parties’ candidates, especially if the minor party candidate is from a splinter party.

    Critic

  • Minor parties, especially single-issue parties, often take stands on and draw attention to controversial issues that the major parties would prefer to ignore.

    Innovator

  • Often, minor parties will draw attention to important issues and propose innovative solutions to problems. If these proposals gain popular support, they are often integrated into the platforms of the two major


Political parties

Party Components

The Party Organization:

Those who run and control the party machinery.

The Party in the Electorate

Those who always or almost always vote for party candidates.

The Party in Government

Those who hold office in the government.


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