Channel catfish culture
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CHANNEL CATFISH CULTURE. Channel Catfish ( Ictalurus punctatus ). Native Range of Channel Catfish in the United States. Food Habits. Preferred Habitat. Reservoirs and lakes. Rivers. Reproductive Live History. 1. Sexual maturity is reached in 2 to 3 years in the southeastern U. S.

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Channel catfish ictalurus punctatus
Channel Catfish ( Ictaluruspunctatus )




Preferred habitat
Preferred Habitat

Reservoirs and lakes

Rivers


Reproductive live history
Reproductive Live History

1. Sexual maturity is reached in 2 to 3 years in the southeastern U. S.

2. Spawning takes place in a cavity formed by rocks, logs or a hole in a lake or river bank.

3. Preferred spawning water temperatures: 21-29 C, with optimal temperature 24 to 26 C.


Sexual behavior
Sexualbehavior

1. Males defend a territory/cavity.

2. Female enters the cavity and spawns.

3. Males incubate eggs and defend fry.

4. Males can spawn with more than one female a season.

Spawning cavity



Catfish ponds are filled with either
Catfish ponds are filled with either: bottoms.

Filtered surface

water or rainfall

Well water


Spawning in captivity
Spawning in captivity: bottoms.

1. Stock adults 3 to 8 years old

2. Stock 1 male to 2 females

3. Stock 800 kg of brooders/ha

male

female


Spawning containers
Spawning Containers bottoms.

Ammo cans

Milk cans

float

Wooden box

Boxes in spawning pond


Spawning occurs during May and June in the Southeastern U. S. Spawning cans are checked every 2 to 3 days for spawns.


Hatching shed
Hatching Shed S. Spawning cans are checked every 2 to 3 days for spawns.

Eggs are transported to a hatching shed.


Eggs are placed in 5 mm square wire mesh baskets suspended in a paddlewheel incubator
Eggs are placed in 5-mm square S. Spawning cans are checked every 2 to 3 days for spawns.wire mesh baskets suspended in a paddlewheel incubator.


Eggs hatch in 5 to 6 days at water temperatures of 24 to 26 c
Eggs hatch in 5 to 6 days at water S. Spawning cans are checked every 2 to 3 days for spawns.temperatures of 24 to 26 °C.


Fry are placed in screen boxes or troughs for 7 to 14 days before stocking in ponds
Fry are placed in screen boxes or troughs for 7 to 14 days before stocking in ponds.

Fry are fed powdered feed.

Screen bottom boxes

Fiberglass trough




Fingerlings are stocked in fattening months. ponds during January to March. Stocking density is 15,000 to 20,000/ha.



Floating pellets are distributed by a feed blower mounted on a truck
Floating pellets are and stored in silos.distributed by a feedblower mounted on atruck.

Floating pellets

corn wheat soybean


Feed amount is controlled by an electronic scale and stored in silos.located in the truck cab. Catfish are fed what they will eat up to a maximum of 120 kg/ha/day.


Dissolved oxygen concentration is checked night and day to assure that levels remain above 2 mg l
Dissolved oxygen concentration is and stored in silos.checked night and day to assurethat levels remain above 2 mg/l.


Electric fixed and tractor mobile powered paddlewheels are used to increase d o levels
Electric (fixed) and tractor (mobile) powered paddlewheels are used to increase D. O. levels.

No water exchange is practiced because ponds are large and pumping water is costly.


Low d o can kill catfish within 1 or 2 hours
Low D. O. can kill catfish within 1 or 2 hours. are used to increase D. O. levels.


Many diseases cause fish mortality
Many diseases cause fish mortality. are used to increase D. O. levels.


Birds consume many fish in some regions
Birds consume many fish in some regions. are used to increase D. O. levels.

Shoo !

Gas cannon to

scare the birds


Catfish are removed from the pond with a seine stored on a hydraulic reel powered by a tractor
Catfish are removed from the pond with a seine are used to increase D. O. levels.stored on a hydraulic reel powered by a tractor.


Management systems used
Management systems used: are used to increase D. O. levels.

  • Monoharvest

  • All catfish are removed from the pond when they reach 0.5 to 1.0 kg, 6 to 12 months from stocking.

  • Ponds are drained yearly.

    2. Multi-harvest

  • Only catfish larger than 0.5 kg are removed by partial seine harvest.

  • Ponds are restocked yearly with small catfish. Large and small catfish are in the pond together.

  • Ponds are partial harvested 2 to 3 times per year. Ponds are drained every 5 to 8 years.


Catfish are retained in a holding net overnight to eliminate small catfish. Fish are crowded for loading onto the transport truck. A crew of 5 can load 15,000 kg of fish in 1 hour.


Catfish are weighed onto small catfish. Fish are crowded for loading onto the transport truck. A crew of 5 can load 15,000 kg of fish in 1 hour.trucks taking the fish tothe processing factory. Each basket holds 900 kg of fish.

scale


Fish are checked for off-flavor 2 weeks, 1 day and upon arrival at the processor. Off-flavor fish are not harvested.


Catfish are weighed a second time upon arrival at the processor fish arrive alive
Catfish are weighed a second time upon arrival at the processor. Fish arrive alive.

scale



Processed forms as a percentage of total catfish processed
Processed forms as a percentage of total catfish processed: processor. Fish arrive alive.

steaks

Fillets and

nuggets

strips

whole

1. Whole - 20 %

2. Pieces and bellies - 20%

3. Fillets - 60 %

Preservation method as a percentage of total catfish processed:

1. iced - 20 %

2. frozen - 80 %


The catfish industry processor. Fish arrive alive.maintains a qualitycontrol program to insure the consumera fresh and healthyproduct.


Principle farming states are located in processor. Fish arrive alive.the Southeastern U. S.. Mississippi (MS) Alabama (AL) and Arkansas (AR) produce 90 % of the farmed catfish.

Mississippi accounts for 65 % of farmed catfish


The channel catfish industry developed in the southeast because
The channel catfish industry developed in the processor. Fish arrive alive.Southeast because:

1. Popular food fish - market

2. Warm climate

3. Abundant water and clay soils

4. Close to major grain farming regions - cheap fish

feeds


Pond yield
Pond yield processor. Fish arrive alive.

4,000 to 7,000 kg/ha/year


Channel catfish growth in live weight processed and average price per kilogram 1970 2002
Channel Catfish Growth in Live Weight Processed processor. Fish arrive alive.and Average Price per Kilogram, 1970 - 2002

  • YEAR LIVE WEIGHT AVG. PRICE*

  • PROCESSED, KG PER KG, $US.

  • ------- --------------------- -----------------

  • 1970 2,609,545 0.75

  • 1975 7,336,363 1.09

  • 1980 21,120,000 1.50

  • 1985 87,098,181 1.58

  • 163,636,360 1.69

  • 203,130,000 1.74

  • 1999 271,194,000 1.63

  • 269,819,540 1.65

  • 271,141,272 1.43

  • 2002 286,636,810 1.25

  • * Price to farmer for fish delivered to the processing plant


Eat more catfish
EAT MORE CATFISH processor. Fish arrive alive.


The processor. Fish arrive alive.

End


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