Channel catfish culture
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CHANNEL CATFISH CULTURE. Channel Catfish ( Ictalurus punctatus ). Native Range of Channel Catfish in the United States. Food Habits. Preferred Habitat. Reservoirs and lakes. Rivers. Reproductive Live History. 1. Sexual maturity is reached in 2 to 3 years in the southeastern U. S.

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CHANNEL CATFISH CULTURE

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Channel catfish culture

CHANNEL CATFISH CULTURE


Channel catfish ictalurus punctatus

Channel Catfish ( Ictaluruspunctatus )


Native range of channel catfish in the united states

Native Range of Channel Catfish in the United States


Food habits

Food Habits


Preferred habitat

Preferred Habitat

Reservoirs and lakes

Rivers


Reproductive live history

Reproductive Live History

1. Sexual maturity is reached in 2 to 3 years in the southeastern U. S.

2. Spawning takes place in a cavity formed by rocks, logs or a hole in a lake or river bank.

3. Preferred spawning water temperatures: 21-29 C, with optimal temperature 24 to 26 C.


Sexual behavior

Sexualbehavior

1. Males defend a territory/cavity.

2. Female enters the cavity and spawns.

3. Males incubate eggs and defend fry.

4. Males can spawn with more than one female a season.

Spawning cavity


Channel catfish culture

Catfish are grown in 4 to 10 ha earthen ponds with flat bottoms.


Catfish ponds are filled with either

Catfish ponds are filled with either:

Filtered surface

water or rainfall

Well water


Spawning in captivity

Spawning in captivity:

1. Stock adults 3 to 8 years old

2. Stock 1 male to 2 females

3. Stock 800 kg of brooders/ha

male

female


Spawning containers

Spawning Containers

Ammo cans

Milk cans

float

Wooden box

Boxes in spawning pond


Channel catfish culture

Spawning occurs during May and June in the Southeastern U. S. Spawning cans are checked every 2 to 3 days for spawns.


Hatching shed

Hatching Shed

Eggs are transported to a hatching shed.


Eggs are placed in 5 mm square wire mesh baskets suspended in a paddlewheel incubator

Eggs are placed in 5-mm squarewire mesh baskets suspended in a paddlewheel incubator.


Eggs hatch in 5 to 6 days at water temperatures of 24 to 26 c

Eggs hatch in 5 to 6 days at watertemperatures of 24 to 26 °C.


Fry are placed in screen boxes or troughs for 7 to 14 days before stocking in ponds

Fry are placed in screen boxes or troughs for 7 to 14 days before stocking in ponds.

Fry are fed powdered feed.

Screen bottom boxes

Fiberglass trough


Fry are stocked at 150 000 to 250 000 ha and grown for 5 months

Fry are stocked at 150,000 to 250,000/ha and grown for 5 months.


Fry are fed powdered crumbled and pelleted feeds

Fry are fed powdered, crumbled and pelleted feeds.


Channel catfish culture

Fingerlings are stocked in fatteningponds during January to March. Stocking density is 15,000 to 20,000/ha.


Catfish feed is purchased by the bag or delivered in bulk and stored in silos

Catfish feed is purchased by the bag or delivered in bulk and stored in silos.


Floating pellets are distributed by a feed blower mounted on a truck

Floating pellets aredistributed by a feedblower mounted on atruck.

Floating pellets

corn wheat soybean


Channel catfish culture

Feed amount is controlled by an electronic scalelocated in the truck cab. Catfish are fed what they will eat up to a maximum of 120 kg/ha/day.


Dissolved oxygen concentration is checked night and day to assure that levels remain above 2 mg l

Dissolved oxygen concentration ischecked night and day to assurethat levels remain above 2 mg/l.


Electric fixed and tractor mobile powered paddlewheels are used to increase d o levels

Electric (fixed) and tractor (mobile) powered paddlewheels are used to increase D. O. levels.

No water exchange is practiced because ponds are large and pumping water is costly.


Low d o can kill catfish within 1 or 2 hours

Low D. O. can kill catfish within 1 or 2 hours.


Many diseases cause fish mortality

Many diseases cause fish mortality.


Birds consume many fish in some regions

Birds consume many fish in some regions.

Shoo !

Gas cannon to

scare the birds


Catfish are removed from the pond with a seine stored on a hydraulic reel powered by a tractor

Catfish are removed from the pond with a seinestored on a hydraulic reel powered by a tractor.


Management systems used

Management systems used:

  • Monoharvest

  • All catfish are removed from the pond when they reach 0.5 to 1.0 kg, 6 to 12 months from stocking.

  • Ponds are drained yearly.

    2. Multi-harvest

  • Only catfish larger than 0.5 kg are removed by partial seine harvest.

  • Ponds are restocked yearly with small catfish. Large and small catfish are in the pond together.

  • Ponds are partial harvested 2 to 3 times per year. Ponds are drained every 5 to 8 years.


Channel catfish culture

Catfish are retained in a holding net overnight to eliminate small catfish. Fish are crowded for loading onto the transport truck. A crew of 5 can load 15,000 kg of fish in 1 hour.


Channel catfish culture

Catfish are weighed onto trucks taking the fish tothe processing factory. Each basket holds 900 kg of fish.

scale


Channel catfish culture

Fish are checked for off-flavor 2 weeks, 1 day and upon arrival at the processor. Off-flavor fish are not harvested.


Catfish are weighed a second time upon arrival at the processor fish arrive alive

Catfish are weighed a second time upon arrival at the processor. Fish arrive alive.

scale


Catfish are cleaned filleted and frozen by the processor

Catfish are cleaned, filleted and frozen by the processor.


Processed forms as a percentage of total catfish processed

Processed forms as a percentage of total catfish processed:

steaks

Fillets and

nuggets

strips

whole

1. Whole - 20 %

2. Pieces and bellies - 20%

3. Fillets - 60 %

Preservation method as a percentage of total catfish processed:

1. iced - 20 %

2. frozen - 80 %


Channel catfish culture

The catfish industry maintains a qualitycontrol program to insure the consumera fresh and healthyproduct.


Channel catfish culture

Principle farming states are located inthe Southeastern U. S.. Mississippi (MS) Alabama (AL) and Arkansas (AR) produce 90 % of the farmed catfish.

Mississippi accounts for 65 % of farmed catfish


The channel catfish industry developed in the southeast because

The channel catfish industry developed in theSoutheast because:

1. Popular food fish - market

2. Warm climate

3. Abundant water and clay soils

4. Close to major grain farming regions - cheap fish

feeds


Pond yield

Pond yield

4,000 to 7,000 kg/ha/year


Channel catfish growth in live weight processed and average price per kilogram 1970 2002

Channel Catfish Growth in Live Weight Processed and Average Price per Kilogram, 1970 - 2002

  • YEARLIVE WEIGHT AVG. PRICE*

  • PROCESSED, KG PER KG, $US.

  • ---------------------------- -----------------

  • 1970 2,609,545 0.75

  • 1975 7,336,363 1.09

  • 198021,120,000 1.50

  • 1985 87,098,181 1.58

  • 163,636,360 1.69

  • 203,130,000 1.74

  • 1999 271,194,000 1.63

  • 269,819,5401.65

  • 271,141,272 1.43

  • 2002 286,636,8101.25

  • * Price to farmer for fish delivered to the processing plant


Eat more catfish

EAT MORE CATFISH


Channel catfish culture

The

End


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