Chronic kidney disease. Alternative Names Kidney failure - chronic Renal failure - chronic Chronic renal insufficiency Chronic kidney failure Chronic kidney disease. KIDNEY FAILURE AND KIDNEY DISEASE. KIDNEY FAILURE
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Kidney failure - chronic
Renal failure - chronic
Chronic renal insufficiency
Chronic kidney failure
Chronic kidney disease
Chronic kidney disease is when one suffers from gradual and usually permanent loss of kidney function over time. This happens gradually over time, usually months to years. Chronic kidney disease is divided into five stages of increasing severity . For the total or near–total loss of kidney function, the patients need dialysis or transplantation to stay alive.CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the volume of fluid filtered from the renal (kidney) glomerular capillaries into the Bowman's capsule per unit time. Clinically, this is often measured to determine renal function. Compare to filtration fraction.
The normal ranges of GFR, adjusted for body surface area, are:
Males: 70 ± 14 mL/min/m2
Females: 60 ± 10 mL/min/m2
GFR can increase due to hypoproteinemia because of the reduction in plasma oncotic pressure. GFR can also increase due to constriction of the efferent arteriole but decreases due to constriction of the afferent arteriole.
Slightly diminished function; Kidney damage with normal or increased GFR (>90 mL/min/1.73 m2). Kidney damage is defined as pathologic abnormalities or markers of damage, including abnormalities in blood or urine test or imaging studies.Stage 1 CKD
Mild reduction in GFR (60-89 mL/min/1.73 m2) with kidney damage. Kidney damage is defined as pathologic abnormalities or markers of damage, including abnormalities in blood or urine test or imaging studiesStage 2 CKD
Stage 3 CKD damage. Kidney damage is defined as pathologic abnormalities or markers of damage, including abnormalities in blood or urine test or imaging studies
Moderate reduction in GFR (30-59 mL/min/1.73 m2)
Stage 4 CKD
Severe reduction in GFR (15-29 mL/min/1.73 m2)
Stage 5 CKD
Established kidney failure (GFR <15 mL/min/1.73 m2, or permanent renal replacement therapy (RRT)
Renal artery stenosis
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
Chronically elevated blood sugars damage blood vessels and filtering units in the kidneys, the condition is known as diabetic nephropathy.Diabetic nephropathy.
Polycystic kidney disease
Kidney stones and
Calcification of the left coronary artery in a patient with chronic kidney disease receiving dialysis as seen on a computerized tomography (CT) scan. The extensive deposition of mineral (arrowed) results in a radio-opaque vessel with a density similar to that of bone
The kidneys normally produce several hormones, including erythropoietin and calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol), the active form of vitamin D. The decreased production of these two hormones plays an important role in the development of anemia and bone disease, respectively.Decreased hormone production
Uremic syndrome consists of an array of complex symptoms and signs that occur when advanced kidney failure prompts the malfunction of virtually every organ system. However, the onset of uremia is slow and insidious, beginning with rather nonspecific symptoms such as malaise, weakness, insomnia, and a general feeling of being unwell. Patients may lose their appetite and complain of morning nausea and vomiting. Eventually, signs and symptoms of multisystem failure are evident.
Scientists from the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) and the University of Michigan have discovered a gene that protects us against a serious kidney disease. In the current online issue of Nature Genetics they report that mutations in the gene cause nephronopthisis (NPHP) in humans and mice. NPHP is a disease marked by kidney degeneration during childhood that leads to kidney failure requiring organ transplantation. The insights might help develop effective, noninvasive therapiesA gene that protects from kidney disease
Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine scientists have observed that an enzyme called ACE2 may hold the potential to treat diabetic kidney disease, the most common form of kidney disease.Enzyme For Treatment Of Diabetic Kidney Disease
THANK YOU scientists have observed that an enzyme called ACE2 may hold the potential to treat diabetic kidney disease, the most common form of kidney disease.