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Greek Civilization The Purpose of Society. 2000 BCE ~ 30 BCE. The Perfection of Human Society.

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Greek civilization the purpose of society

Greek CivilizationThe Purpose of Society

2000BCE ~ 30 BCE


The perfection of human society
The Perfection of Human Society

  • If Sumerians had seen their purpose as service and entertainment for the gods, and Egyptians had perceived themselves as the first “chosen people,” the Greeks came to see themselves as uniquely “human.” This meant that their goals were two - to perfect society for people, and to perfect people for society. Nearly all that they did can be seen as one or the other of these.


Areas of interest for the greeks

Society

Government

Warfare

Economy & Business

Art

History

Law

Science

People

Epistemology

Philosophy

Behavior

Purpose

Morality/Religion

Citizenship

Personal honor

Areas of interest for the Greeks


Greece & the Aegean Sea

Greece is

mountainous and

difficult to move

about. This meant

that most Poli

developed in

relative isolation,

and accounts for

the multitude of

Greek answers to

social questions.


Minoan period 2000 1450 bce
Minoan Period 2000 - 1450 BCE

  • Knossos built by 1700 BCE

  • Linear A not deciphered

  • Destroyed by fire & tsunami @ 1450 BCE destroyed it.


Minoan culture
Minoan Culture

  • Related to Greeks

  • Trading culture

  • Skilled navigators of the Mediterranean

  • Taught Mycenean Greeks writing, trade, & navigation

  • Art & religion appear to have revolved around trade

Back


Mycenean period 2000 1200 bce
Mycenean Period 2000 ~ 1200 BCE

  • 2000 - 1400 Dominant

    • burial quite different

    • characterized by kingship

    • Agricultural

    • Traded with Minoans

  • Linear B script

    • Learned from Minoans

  • Conquered & Usurped Minoan position in Med.

Lion’s Gate at Mycenae

Back


Greek dark ages 1150 750bce
Greek Dark Ages 1150 - 750BCE

  • Loss of major elements of Mycenean Civ.

  • Homeric Age

    • Homer: Iliad; Odyssey

    • No written documents

  • Means to success & immortality: heroism, honor, fame

Back


The acropolis athens
The Acropolis, Athens

Center of Polis cult: contract with a protector deity to defend

polis. In exchange, polis people perform worship activities.

“Faith” was not an issue. Defensive fortress.

Back


Polis
Polis

  • City/state

    • The center of Greek society, & the largest political unit.

  • Centered on the “Acropolis” & including an “Agora”

  • “Aristocracy” & “Oligarchy”

  • Tyrants

  • “Citizens” and others in the Polis

Back




Persian wars
Persian Wars

  • 492 BCE 1st Persian expedition destroyed by storms

  • 490 BCE 2nd expedition defeated by Athens at Marathon

  • 480 BCE 3rd Persian expedition destroys Spartan Army at Thermopylae, but Persian navy is detroyed by Athens at Salamis. Athens Razed

Leonidas I of Sparta

Back



Athenian empire pelopponesian wars 431 404 bce
Athenian EmpirePelopponesian Wars, 431 - 404 BCE

  • The Pelopponesian wars were between Athens and Sparta

    • Eventually, Sparta won in 404 BCE

    • Primarily a problem of citizenship & trade

Back


Peloponnesian wars
Peloponnesian Wars

  • Over Delian League (Athenian Empire)

  • 460~451 BCE 1st Peloponnesian War

    • Pericles

  • 431 2nd Peloponnesian War

    • Plague in Athens (Pericles killed)

    • 404 Sparta Captures Athens

Back


Macedonia alexander s empire
Macedonia & Alexander’s Empire

  • Philip II

    • Unification of Greece

  • Alexander the Great

    • 334 - 323 BCE Conquests

    • Died 323 Babylon

Alexander’s Route

Back


Greek philosophy
Greek Philosophy

  • Thales of Miletus

    • Explains world through natural occurrences

    • With Anaximander: material vs. form

  • Pythagorus of Samos

  • Democritus & Atomic Theory

  • Hippocritus & Medicine (dissections)

  • Herodotus of Halicarnassus (484-425 BCE)

Back


Socrates plato aristotle
Socrates, Plato, Aristotle

  • Socrates 470~399BCE

    • Human virtue in intellectual activity

    • Condemned to die for “corrupting the youth”

  • Plato

    • form/material, The Allegory of the Cave

      • “Realm of Images”

  • Aristotle

    • Materialist, Cataloged facts & knowledge

Back


Greek art
Greek Art

Moscophoros the Calf Bearer: Archaic Greek Sculpture


Classical sculpture
Classical Sculpture

Discobolos

@450 BCE




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