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Agroterrorism/Bioterrorism: Potential Occurrences and Emergency Management of Foreign and Emerging Animal Diseases. Floron C. Faries, Jr., DVM, MS Professor and Extension Program Leader for Veterinary Medicine Texas Cooperative Extension Texas A&M University System.

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Agroterrorism/Bioterrorism:Potential Occurrences and Emergency Management of Foreign and Emerging Animal Diseases

Floron C. Faries, Jr., DVM, MS

Professor and Extension Program Leader

for Veterinary Medicine

Texas Cooperative Extension

Texas A&M University System

Us threatened by potential occurrences of feads
US Threatened by Potential Occurrences of FEADs

  • Foreign animal diseases

    • Not currently present in US

    • Accidental and intentional risks for entry

      • Travelers

      • Meat products

      • Garbage

      • Bioterrorists

Emerging animal diseases

A new disease or a new form of an old endemic disease

Natural, accidental and intentional risks of emergence

Zoonotic diseases

Diseases shared by animals and people

Various FEADs

Types of occurrences of feads
Types of Occurrences of FEADs

  • Natural

  • Accidental

  • Intentional (Bioterrorist Act)

Devastating impacts of animal disease outbreaks
Devastating Impacts of Animal Disease Outbreaks

  • Economic impacts

  • Sociologic impacts

  • Emotional impacts

  • Political impacts

Foot and mouth disease
Foot and Mouth Disease

  • Not in U.S.

    • A reportable disease

  • Viral disease

    • Domestic and wild cloven-hoofed livestock

    • Blisters and sores in mouth and on feet

  • TAHC ban

    • Meat garbage feeding to swine

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy bse mad cow disease
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)Mad Cow Disease

  • Not in U.S.

    • A reportable disease

  • Prion disease

    • Cattle

    • People (vCJD) – zoonotic disease

  • Brain disease in cattle – rabies symptoms

  • Not contagious

  • Reduced risks of entry and spread

  • USDA bans

    • Feed bans

    • Slaughter bans

    • Import bans

Cervid spongiform encephalopathy chronic wasting disease cwd
Cervid Spongiform EncephalopathyChronic Wasting Disease (CWD)

  • In U.S.

    • A reportable disease

    • Colorado, Wyoming, Nebraska, S. Dakota, Utah, New Mexico, Wisconsin, Illinois, New York, W. Virginia, Montana, Oklahoma, Kansas

  • Prion disease?

    • Deer and elk

  • Brain disease – rabies symptoms

  • Chronic emaciation disease

  • Restricted importation into States

  • Voluntary CWD Monitoring Program

  • Hunter-Killed Testing Program


  • In U.S.

    • A reportable disease

  • Bacterial disease

    • Domestic and wild livestock

    • People – zoonotic disease

  • Endemic Southwest Texas

    • IH-10 X IH-35 Triangle

West nile encephalitis
West Nile Encephalitis

  • In US

    • A reportable disease

  • Viral bird disease – >100 species

    • Blue jays, crows, hawks

    • Encephalitis death

  • Transmission

    • Virus in bird blood

    • Mosquito (>75 species) bite bird

    • Mosquito bite mammal – virus not in blood (dead end)

      • Horse – rabies symptoms

      • People – zoonotic disease

Bovine tuberculosis
Bovine Tuberculosis

  • In US

    • A reportable disease

  • Bacterial disease

    • Cattle

  • Chronic emaciation, respiratory distress

    • Tumor abscesses of lungs and lymph nodes

Bovine paratuberculosis johne s disease
Bovine ParatuberculosisJohne’s Disease

  • In US

    • Not a reportable disease

  • Bacterial disease

    • Cattle

  • Chronic emaciation

    • Maldigestive enteritis – diarrhea

Avian influenza avian flu bird flu
Avian InfluenzaAvian Flu Bird Flu

  • Viral disease

    • Migratory waterfowl

    • Domestic poultry

    • Virus in intestines

    • Virus shed in feces

  • A reportable disease

  • Two classifications – disease symptoms

    • Low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI)

      • Little risk to poultry industry

      • In US

      • Endemic disease

      • Most common class

    • High-pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI)

      • Serious damage to poultry industry

      • Not in US

      • Epidemic disease

      • Zoonotic disease (rare)

First line of defense in emergency management of feads
First Line of Defense in Emergency Management of FEADs

  • Education of first defenders is key

    • Animal owners

    • County Extension agents

    • Private veterinarians

Emergency management of feads
Emergency Management of FEADs

  • Biosecurity is key

  • Early detection is key

    • Unusual signs

  • Rapid reporting is key

  • Rapid response is key

  • Prompt quarantine is key

Quick diagnosis is key

Disease surveillance is key

Regulatory agencies and animal industries working together is key

Biosecurity measures
Biosecurity Measures

  • Wash hands

  • Wash disinfect boots

  • Wash disinfect trailer

  • Wash disinfect tires

  • Wash disinfect borrowed equipment

  • Proper garbage disposal

Lock gates

Stranger alert

International visitor – >48 hours wait

Purchased livestock – >2 weeks isolation, tests

Routine observations

State emergency management
State Emergency Management

  • Texas State Emergency Management Plan

    • Annex O

      • Agriculture Production and Companion Animals

    • Appendix 3

      • Foreign and Emerging Animal Diseases (FEAD) Response Plan

    • State jurisdiction

      • Texas Animal Health Commission

Five state FEAD committees assess mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery issues

Impact assessment committee

Security and containment committee

Environmental committee

Public information committee

Community impact committee

Identified incident command system response and recovery issues

Incident command post(s)

Incident commanders – TAHC and DPS

First Assessment and Sampling Team (FAST) response and recovery issues

Joint Information Center (JIC)

Texas Emergency Response Team (TERT)

To support field deployed ICP(s)

Quarantine animals response and recovery issues

Several mile radius containment zone

Months to years

Depopulate animals

Surveillance of animals

Control or eradicate options

Local emergency management

Texas Local Emergency Management Plan response and recovery issues

Annex N

Direction and Control

Appendix 4

Animal Issues Plan

Local jurisdiction

County Judge or City Mayor

Local Emergency Coordinator (EMC)

Local Emergency Management

  • Animal disease disasters response and recovery issues

    • TAHC is lead agency (top down authority)

    • TAHC activates Texas FEAD Response Plan

    • TAHC activates Local EM Plan

Available resources
Available Resources response and recovery issues