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EXPRESSIONS OF IDENTITY – aspirations & actions. 1919 founded a newspaper, ‘La Paria’, in French and ‘Soul of Vietnam’ in Vietnamese to publish his views of colonisation and nationalism.

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slide4

EXPRESSIONS OF IDENTITY

– aspirations & actions

1919 founded a newspaper, ‘La Paria’, in French

and ‘Soul of Vietnam’ in Vietnamese to publish his views of colonisation and nationalism.

He always hoped that the US would help to free Vietnam. -made unsuccessful approaches to Wilson and Truman.

1920 he joined the French Communist Party.

Never wavered from the ideal of a free and independent Vietnam.

1923 – Moscow- adopted Leninism.

1924 - China communist groups.

slide5

EXPRESSIONS OF IDENTITY cont’d

  • 1925 - Revolutionary Youth League of Vietnam.
  • 1927 - nearly arrested
  • He travelled to persuade village peasants about his ideas.
  • 1929 - Hong Kong brought rival communist groups together as the Indochina Communist Party –the ICP.
slide6

EXPRESSIONS OF IDENTITY cont’d

  • 1930s he ‘disappeared’ - thought to be dead
  • By 1939 he thought the time for his nationalistic revolution was near - made moves to return to Vietnam.
  • 1941 founded the Vietnamese Independence League –Viet Minh.
  • This was to be a guerrilla army to eject the colonisers.
slide7
1943 – released, walked home to Vietnam.
  • 1945 took control during power vacuum.
  • 2nd September 1945 - rally of 500,000 people in Hanoi
  • Used words form the US Constitution to state his case for independence.
  • Began to eliminate his opposition.
  • Ho asked French and President Truman for help and to give the Vietnamese autonomy.
expressions of identity cont d
EXPRESSIONS OF IDENTITY cont’d
  • Borrowed ideas from Lenin,
  • Took the name Ho Chi Minh – Bringer of Light
  • Promoted land reform, improved working conditions, democratic rights.
  • 1941 he went to China to help fight against the Japanese
  • Arrested as a communist.
slide9

EXPRESSIONS OF IDENTITY cont’d

  • French returned in 1946 to Vietnam.
  • 1954 agreed to the division of Vietnam
  • In 1965 Lyndon Johnson offered Ho a settlement which he turned down.
  • Ho agreed to peace talks but he died during them 3 Sept 1969
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CHARACTERISTICS

  • Middle class
  • Considered wise
  • Softly spoken and benign
  • Considered a gentleman
  • Called ‘Uncle Ho’ - fostered the persona of ‘avuncular Mandarin’
  • Enjoyed French songs
  • Humble demeanour
  • Smoked American cigarettes: only ever offered Vietnamese cigarettes
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CHARACTERISTICS cont’d

  • Fluent speaker of English, French,

Russian and 3 Chinese dialects

  • Attracted important and powerful politicians
  • Single minded and dedicated to Vietnamese Nationalism
  • Appeared to be celibate although actually not.
  • ‘In touch’ with the plight of the peasants
  • Wide appeal with his humanistic ideals.
slide12

CHARACTERISTICS cont’d

  • Secretive at times - changed his name up to 19 times.
  • Preferred Leninism to Marxism.
  • Willing to sacrifice all for his vision.
  • Never a committed communist but committed nationalist.
  • Now regarded by the Vietnamese as their greatest nationalist hero.
  • In 1975 - Saigon renamed

Ho Chi Minh City

contributing factors
CONTRIBUTING FACTORS
  • Born 19th May 1890 in Nge An to a middle class family
  • Youngest of three children,
  • Named Nguyen Sinh Cuong - changed at age 10 to Nguyen Tat Thanh
  • Vietnam - colonised by the Chinese - then French from about 1858
  • Ho learned Confucian philosophy
  • Sent to a French preparatory school.
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His father was fired from his job - nationalistic tendencies - left family.
  • Ho learned that the French were vindictive.
  • 1908 Ho sent to Hue to study
  • Expelled - brought to attention of French Secret Police.
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CONTRIBUTING FACTORS cont’d

  • Aged 21 travelled to see French ‘Liberty, Fraternity, Egalite’ -first hand.
  • turned down for a student.
  • Then travelled around.
  • Liked the Statue of Liberty
  • Impressed by US civil rights.
  • 1917 met the Overseas Workers Association in London.
slide16

CONTRIBUTING FACTORS cont’d

  • Left for Paris in 1917 (Paris Peace Talks of 1919).
  • He tried to get help to free Vietnam
  • Unable to talk to Woodrow Wilson.
  • Publishing gave him publicity in Vietnam.
  • Lived under the threat of treason.
  • Being Vietnamese meant always being occupied.
slide18
Year 12 Vietnam – Ho Chi Minh Poster available from www.schoolhistory.co.nz
  • Vietnam village photos courtesy of M. C. Kraft. Images taken between August 5 1967 through July 28th 1968.
  • These were taken when Kraft was assigned as a US Medic to the 1/27th Wolfhounds, 25th Infantry Division.
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