Hierarchical Classification vs. Systematics
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Hierarchical Classification vs. Systematics. Nomenclature is the science of naming organisms Evolution has created an enormous diversity, so how do we deal with it? Names allow us to talk about groups of organisms. - Scientific names were originally descriptive phrases; not practical

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Nomenclature is the science of naming organisms

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Nomenclature is the science of naming organisms

Hierarchical Classification vs. Systematics

Nomenclature is the science of naming organisms

Evolution has created an enormous diversity, so how do we deal with it?

Names allow us to talk about groups of organisms.

- Scientific names were originally descriptive phrases; not practical

- Binomial nomenclature

> Developed by Linnaeus, a Swedish naturalist

> Names are in Latin, formerly the language of science

> binomials - names consisting of two parts

> The generic name is a noun.

> The epithet is a descriptive adjective.

- Thus a species' name is two words e.g. Homo sapiens

Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778)


Nomenclature is the science of naming organisms

Taxonomyis the science of the classification (Hierarchical) of organisms

Taxonomy deals with the naming and ordering of taxa.

The Linnaean hierarchy:

1. Kingdom

2. Division

3. Class

4. Order

5. Family

6. Genus

7. Species

Evolutionary distance


Nomenclature is the science of naming organisms

Systematics is the science of how organisms are related and the evidence for those relationships

Speciation -- the origin of new species from previously existing ones

Reconstruct evolutionary history

Phylogeny


Nomenclature is the science of naming organisms

Hierarchical Classification


Nomenclature is the science of naming organisms

Systematics


Which pair is more closely related a lizard crocodile or bird crocodile

Which pair is more closely related? A lizard/crocodile or bird/crocodile?


Important definitions

Important Definitions

Node: a branchpoint in a tree (a presumed ancestral OTU)

Branch: defines the relationship between the taxa in terms of descent and ancestry

Topology: the branching patterns of the tree

Branch length (scaled trees only): represents the number of changes that have occurred in the branch

Root: the common ancestor of all taxa

Clade: a group of two or more taxa or DNA sequences that includes both their common ancestor and all their descendents

Branch

Node

Clade

Root


Nomenclature is the science of naming organisms

  • Look at the cladogram at the right. What conclusions can be drawn about the relationship between humans and chimps?


How to read a cladogram

How to read a Cladogram

  • This diagram shows a relationship between 4 relatives. These relatives share a common ancestor at the root of the tree.

  • Note that this diagram is also a timeline. The older organism is at the bottom of the tree.

  • Branches on the tree represent SPECIATION, the formation of a new species.

  • The four descendents at the top of the tree are DIFFERENT species. This is called SPECIATION.


How to read a cladogram1

How to read a Cladogram

  • Species B and C each have characteristics that are unique only to them.

  • But they also share some part of their history with species A. This shared history is the common ancestor


Nomenclature is the science of naming organisms

  • A CLADE is a group of organisms that come from a common ancestor.


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