Hierarchical Classification vs. Systematics. Nomenclature is the science of naming organisms Evolution has created an enormous diversity, so how do we deal with it? Names allow us to talk about groups of organisms. - Scientific names were originally descriptive phrases; not practical
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Hierarchical Classification vs. Systematics
Nomenclature is the science of naming organisms
Evolution has created an enormous diversity, so how do we deal with it?
Names allow us to talk about groups of organisms.
- Scientific names were originally descriptive phrases; not practical
- Binomial nomenclature
> Developed by Linnaeus, a Swedish naturalist
> Names are in Latin, formerly the language of science
> binomials - names consisting of two parts
> The generic name is a noun.
> The epithet is a descriptive adjective.
- Thus a species' name is two words e.g. Homo sapiens
Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778)
Taxonomyis the science of the classification (Hierarchical) of organisms
Taxonomy deals with the naming and ordering of taxa.
The Linnaean hierarchy:
Systematics is the science of how organisms are related and the evidence for those relationships
Speciation -- the origin of new species from previously existing ones
Reconstruct evolutionary history
Node: a branchpoint in a tree (a presumed ancestral OTU)
Branch: defines the relationship between the taxa in terms of descent and ancestry
Topology: the branching patterns of the tree
Branch length (scaled trees only): represents the number of changes that have occurred in the branch
Root: the common ancestor of all taxa
Clade: a group of two or more taxa or DNA sequences that includes both their common ancestor and all their descendents