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CHAPTER 3. MIGRATION. GEOGRAPHY & MIGRATION. HGs look at: From where people migrate To where people migrate Why people migrate. MIGRATION cont. EMIGRATION. IMMIGRATION. To a location - When I was 12 I immigrated to Malvern from Exton. From a location

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CHAPTER 3

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Chapter 3

CHAPTER 3

MIGRATION


Geography migration

GEOGRAPHY & MIGRATION

  • HGs look at:

    • From where people migrate

    • To where people migrate

    • Why people migrate


Migration cont

MIGRATION cont.

EMIGRATION

IMMIGRATION

To a location

- When I was 12 I immigrated to Malvern from Exton

  • From a location

    - Three years ago I emigrated from Malvern to Downingtown

Net Migration – difference between E and I

(know positive/negative; net-in/net-out)


Chapter 3

ISSUE #1

Why do People Migrate?


Reasons for migrating

REASONS FOR MIGRATING

  • Most people migrate for economic reasons

  • Also migrate due to cultural and environmental factors

  • Don’t forget the role of distance decay in this matter!!! (why more Mexican workers than Argentinean?)


Chapter 3

D

I

S

T

A

N

C

E

D

E

C

A

Y


Push pull factors economic

PUSH/PULL FACTORS: ECONOMIC

  • Better job opportunities may pull/bad economy may push

  • Certain resources attract certain professions (petroleum may attract miners/engineers)

  • Area with rapid population growth will pull in service workers (construction workers, restaurant workers)


Push pull factors cultural

PUSH/PULL FACTORS: CULTURAL

Cultural factors such as slavery and political instability

Creation of new countries with new boundaries (people on wrong side of the border – ex. India/Pakistan in late 1940s)

Wars create refugees (ex. Sudan)

Hope of democracy may pull people in (Cubans coming to America)


Refugees sources destinations

Refugees: Sources & Destinations

Fig. 3-1: Major source and destination areas of both international and internal refugees. KNOW THIS MAP!!!!!!


Push pull factors environmental

PUSH/PULL FACTORS: ENVIRONMENTAL

  • Pull towards attractive areas (warm climates, mountains, beaches…)

  • Health concerns may force them to seek a new climate

  • Water issues/disasters force many to move (Hurricane Katrina)

  • Droughts causes others to leave (Sahel region of northern Africa)


Scene from the grapes of wrath

Scene from The Grapes of Wrath

The Dust Bowl in the 1930s led to forced migration from the Great Plains to California and elsewhere.


Hurricane katrina migrants

Hurricane Katrina Migrants

A major natural disaster represents an environmental push factor for forced migration.


Push pull factors in your family hw

PUSH/PULL FACTORS IN YOUR FAMILY (hw)

Ask your parents why they chose to live in the town they do. Try to get them to list at least 3 reasons and then you need to identify each reason as an economic, environmental or cultural factor and each one as a push/pull factor.

Ex. Found a great job (economic and pull)


Intervening obstacles

INTERVENING OBSTACLES

  • Before modern transportation they were mostly environmental (ex. Gold Rushers had a hard time getting to California……why?)

  • More modern IOs include such things as government regulations (ex. Quotas)


Internal migration

INTERNAL MIGRATION

  • Permanent movement within the same country

  • Two types

    1. interregional – from one region of a country to another (ex. NE to West)

    - historically, the main type has been from rural to urban areas (why?)

    2.intraregional– movement within one region (ex. Florida to Georgia)

    - historically, the main type has been within urban areas


U s migration flows

U.S. MIGRATION FLOWS


International migration

INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION

  • Permanent movement from one country to another

  • Two types

    1. Voluntary – person chose to move for economic improvement

    2. Forced– compelled to move due to cultural factors, felt they didn’t have a choice

    *** be aware of migration transition (p.87)

    *** you are responsible for “Characteristics of Migrants” on your own (pp. 87-88)


Chapter 3

ISSUE #2

Where are Migrants Distributed?


Global migration patterns

GLOBAL MIGRATION PATTERNS

  • Net Out = Asia, Latin America, Africa

  • Net In = North America, Europe, Oceania

  • Pattern of migration from LDCs to MDCs

  • Highest percentage of immigrants is found in the Middle East (why?, doesn’t seem to make sense)


Global migration patterns1

Global Migration Patterns

Fig. 3-2: The major flows of migration are from less developed to more developed countries.


Type 1

Type 1

1. List at least 3 reasons you think the major flow of migration is from LDCs to MDCs.


Net migration per population

Net Migration (per population)

Fig. 3-3: Net migration per 1000 population. The U.S. has the largest number of immigrants, but other developed countries also have relatively large numbers.


Chapter 3

NET IMMIGRATION


Chapter 3

NET EMIGRATION


U s immigration patterns

U.S. IMMIGRATION PATTERNS

  • 3 main eras of migration:

    1. colonial period

    • mid-1800s-early 1900s

    • 1970s-today


1 colonial immigration

1. COLONIAL IMMIGRATION

  • Came from Europe (voluntary) and Africa (forced)

  • Prior to 1840, 90% of European immigrants came from G.B.

  • 400,000 slaves before 1808; 250,000 after


2 mid 1800s early 1900s

2. Mid-1800s – EARLY 1900s

  • U.S. offered the greatest hope of economic success (almost all during this Era were from Europe, the most from which country?)

  • Europeans who didn’t come to the U.S. went mostly to temperate climates (ex. Canada, Australia, southern Africa, southern South America……why?)

  • There have been three “peaks” of European immigration


3 peaks for mid 1800s early 1900s

3 PEAKS for Mid 1800s – Early 1900s


3 recent immigration 1970s today

3. RECENT IMMIGRATION (1970s – today)

  • Immigration dropped sharply during1930s and 1940s (why?)

  • Has surged since the 1970s, most from Latin America and Asia


Immigration from asia

IMMIGRATION FROM ASIA

  • 7 million from Asia in last 25 years

  • China, Philippines, India, Vietnam

  • Many also go to Canada (Canada receives a higher % of Europeans and lower % of Latin Americans – what might explain this?)


Immigration from latin america

IMMIGRATION FROM LATIN AMERICA

  • 13 million from 1960 – 2005 (overtook Asia in the 1980s as the leading source of immigrants)

  • Most from Mexico (compare to Germany) and The Dominican Republic

  • Significant role played by the Immigration Reform and Control Act (1986)

  • same reason as other regions (pushed by poor economic situation and pulled by economic opportunity)


Migration to u s by region of origin

Migration to U.S., by Region of Origin

Fig. 3-4: Most migrants to the U.S were from Europe until the 1960s. Since then, Latin America and Asia have become the main sources of immigrants.


Migration from asia to the u s

Migration from Asia to the U.S.

Fig. 3-5: The largest numbers of migrants from Asia come from India, China, the Philippines, and Vietnam.


Migration from latin america to the u s

Migration from Latin America to the U.S.

Fig. 3-6: Mexico has been the largest source of immigrants to the U.S., but immigrants have also come from numerous other Latin American nations.


U s states as immigrant destinations

U.S. States as Immigrant Destinations

Fig. 3-8: California is the destination of about 25% of all US immigrants; another 25% go to New York and New Jersey. Other important destinations include Florida, Texas, and Illinois.


Big picture

BIG PICTURE

  • Pattern of immigration in U.S. has changed from mostly European to mostly Asian and Latin American

  • Reasons remain the same, pushed by poor economic/political conditions and pulled by economic and social opportunities


Review

review

  • During the late 20th century most immigrants came from ___ and ___

  • One reason fewer Europeans migrate to the U.S. is due to the fact that they have low _____ and _____ that can support the population. They are in stage ___

  • Crossing the U.S./Mexican border is relatively easy (T/F)

  • Define “undocumented immigrant”

  • List the 4 states in which more than 50% of recent immigrants are clustered

  • More than ¼ of all undocumented immigrants are located in this state alone

  • Define Chain migration

  • Why have Mexican migrants recently started going to the Midwest in larger numbers?

  • What was the point and impact of the enclosure movement?


Review1

review

  • During the late 20th century most immigrants came from ___ and ___ (Asia and Latin America)

  • One reason fewer Europeans migrate to the U.S. is due to the fact that they have low _____ and _____ that can support the population. They are in stage ___ (natural increase rates; economies; 4)

  • Crossing the U.S./Mexican border is relatively easy (T)

  • Define “undocumented immigrant” (people who enter the country without proper documents)

  • List the 4 states in which more than 50% of recent immigrants are clustered (California, New York, Florida, Texas)

  • More than ¼ of all undocumented immigrants are located in this state alone (California)

  • Define Chain migration (the migration of people to a specific location, because relatives or members of the same nationality migrated there)

  • Why have Mexican migrants recently started going to the Midwest in larger numbers? (take industrial jobs shunned by Americans)

  • What was the point and impact of the enclosure movement? (to make farms in England more efficient. It forced millions to emigrate from rural areas)


Chapter 3

ISSUE #3

Why do Migrants Face Obstacles?


Immigration policies of host countries

IMMIGRATION POLICIES of HOST COUNTRIES

  • Two policies used by host countries to control arrival of foreigners seeking work:

    • Quota system

    • Temporary Work


Quota laws

QUOTA LAWS

  • Quota Act (1921)

  • National Origins Act (1924)

    • These two remained relatively unchanged until the 1960s

    • European bias ????

    • Led to a decline in immigration

  • By 1968 national quotas were replaced with “hemisphere” quotas

  • Hemisphere quotas were replaced by global quotas in 1978

    • breakdown of what type of people are permitted? (most are to reunite families)

    • Does this apply to refugees?

    • Asians have very effectively used the family preference strategy, leading to a great deal of chain migration


Brain drain

BRAIN DRAIN

  • Effects of U.S. immigration policies on countries with a lot of emigrants

    • Some are unhappy that they are losing this “brain power” to Europe and the U.S.

  • Should the U.S. care?


Types of temporary workers

TYPES OF TEMPORARY WORKERS

GUEST WORKERS

TIME-CONTRACT WORKERS

Workers (many from Asia)recruited for a fixed period for a specific job (railroads, mines, plantations…)

Many stayed after that time expired

Many Chinese living in other Asian nations

  • Citizens of poor countries who obtain jobs in Europe and the ME

  • Take low-skilled, low-status jobs that locals don’t fill

  • Benefits home and new country in different ways such as….?

  • What protects them from exploitation?

  • Most in Europe come from NA, ME, EE/SE and Asia

    • A lot of Turks in Germany


Economic migrant or refugee why does it matter

ECONOMIC MIGRANT OR REFUGEE?(why does it matter?)

Haitians were considered economic, not political refugees in the ‘80s until changed by a lawsuit by the Haitian people

Cuban emigrants are seen as political refugees since the ’59 revolution

- concentrated in Florida

  • Surge of Vietnamese to U.S. after 1975 created some issues (boat people)

  • 2nd surge in late ‘80s to other Asian nations

  • about 800,000 have ended up in the U.S.


Cultural problems faced while living in other countries

CULTURAL PROBLEMS FACED WHILE LIVING IN OTHER COUNTRIES

Type 1: List 5- 10 problems you think you would face if you were an immigrant (forced or voluntary) in another country.


Cultural problems faced while living in other countries1

CULTURAL PROBLEMS FACED WHILE LIVING IN OTHER COUNTRIES

U.S. Attitudes toward Immigrants

Europe & Guest Workers

Isolated (usually arrive alone, send most money back home, experience language & cultural barriers)

Some natives dislike/fear guest workers (why?)

Recent efforts in Europe and ME to reduce the # of guest workers due to lower economic growth

Troubles in Fiji?

  • 19th century – immigrants were often viewed with suspicion but helped settle new territories and extend U.S. control

  • Opposition increased in early 20th century as the frontier “closed”

  • Recent issues about things such as allowing/denying undocumented immigrants access to public services such as schools, day-care centers, health clinics…


Ki3 review

KI3 REVIEW

  • What are the 2 major obstacles faced by immigrants today?

  • Define quota (as seen in the book)

  • How did the Immigration Acts of the 1960s and 1970s change our quota system?

  • About ¾ of immigrants are admitted to the U.S. in order to ______ ________

  • The large-scale emigration by talented people is known as????

  • T/F – guest workers in European countries are protected by minimum-wage laws and unions

  • What types of jobs do guest workers in Western Europe typically fill?

  • List 2 ways in which guest workers help their native country.

  • Define “time-contract worker”

  • Why is it important to distinguish between economic migrants and refugees?


Ki3 review1

KI3 REVIEW

  • What are the 2 major obstacles faced by immigrants today?

    a. Gaining permission to enter the country

    b. Hostile attitudes of citizens of their new country


Ki3 review2

KI3 REVIEW

2. Define quota (as seen in the book)

- maximum limits on the number of people who can immigrate to the U.S. during a 1 year time period.


Ki3 review3

KI3 REVIEW

3. How did the Immigration Acts of the 1960s and 1970s change our quota system?

- 60’s changes quotas from nationally based to hemisphere based

- 70’s became globally based


Ki3 review4

KI3 REVIEW

4. About ¾ of immigrants are admitted to the U.S. in order to ______ ________

- reunify families


Ki3 review5

KI3 REVIEW

5. The large-scale emigration by talented people is known as????

- Brain Drain


Ki3 review6

KI3 REVIEW

6. T/F – guest workers in European countries are protected by minimum-wage laws and unions

- True


Ki3 review7

KI3 REVIEW

7. What types of jobs do guest workers in Western Europe typically fill?

- low-status

- low-skilled


Ki3 review8

KI3 REVIEW

8. List 2 ways in which guest workers help their native country.

  • Reduce unemployment

  • Send money back to their native country


Ki3 review9

KI3 REVIEW

9. Define “time-contract worker”

- laborers recruited for a fixed period


Ki3 review10

KI3 REVIEW

10. Why is it important to distinguish between economic migrants and refugees?

- Refugees are given priority over economic migrants. Ems are generally not admitted unless they have special skills or close relatives already there; refugees don’t need these two requirements


Chapter 3

ISSUE #4

Why do People Migrate Within a Country?


Types of internal migratrion within the same country

TYPES OF INTERNAL MIGRATRION (WITHIN THE SAME COUNTRY)

INTERREGIONAL

(between regions)

INTRAREGIONAL

(within the same region)

Usually from older cities to suburbs

  • Usually between rural and urban areas


Migration between regions within the u s

MIGRATION BETWEEN REGIONS WITHIN THE U.S.

  • Interregional was more prevalent in the past (why?)

  • Most famous example of large-scale internal migration in U.S. history? (interregional or intraregional?)

  • Population center has changed over the past 200 years (how? Why?)


Interregional migration in the u s

Interregional Migration in the U.S.

Fig. 3-13: Average annual migrations between regions in the U.S. in 1995 and in 2003


Intraregional migration in the u s

Intraregional Migration in the U.S.

Fig. 3-14: Average annual migration among urban, suburban, and rural areas in the U.S. during the 1990s. The largest flow was from central cities to suburbs.


Changing centers of population in u s

CHANGING CENTERS OF POPULATION IN U.S.

RECENT GROWTH

OF THE SOUTH

EARLY SETTLEMENT OF THE INTERIOR

SETTELEMENT OF THE GREAT PLAINS

- See worksheet


Center of population in the u s

Center of Population in the U.S.

Fig. 3-12: The center of U.S. population has consistently moved westward, with the migration of people to the west. It has also begun to move southward with migration to the southern sunbelt.


Migration within one region within the same country

MIGRATION WITHIN ONE REGION(WITHIN THE SAME COUNTRY)

  • Much more intraregional than interregional migration today

  • Usually from rural to urban areas

  • Today nearly ½ of world’s population lives in urban areas, in 1800 it was about 5%


Migration from rural to urban

MIGRATION FROM RURAL TO URBAN

  • Industrialization in 1800s led to larger urban populations

  • ¾ of current U.S. population lives in urban areas (5% in 1800)

  • In LDCs this has skyrocketed and accounts for 50% of population increase in those areas (ex. Sao Paulo, Brazil)


Brasilia brazil

Brasilia, Brazil

Brasilia was created as Brazil’s new capital in 1960 and since then has attracted thousands of migrants in search of jobs.


Migration from urban to suburban

MIGRATION FROM URBAN TO SUBURBAN

  • In MDCs most intraregional migration is from cities to suburbs (opposite in LDCs)

  • Unlike other migration, reasons are not related to employment (pulled by lifestyle)

  • Consequences include converting farms to developments, more roads, sewers, schools….


Migration from metropolitan to nonmetropolitan

MIGRATION FROM METROPOLITAN TO NONMETROPOLITAN

  • New trend in late 1990s, more people in MDCs immigrated into rural areas than emigrated out of them (counterurbanization)

  • Why? – growth of suburbs, lifestyle, less isolation with new technologies, retirees, leisure activities


Chapter 03 review

Chapter 03: Review


Chapter 3

03.01 Which of the following is the strongest push factor for international migration?

1. Political instability

2. High living standards

3. Severe weather

4. Inadequate supplies of agricultural land

5. Family disagreements


Chapter 3

03.01 Which of the following is the strongest push factor for international migration?

1. Political instability

2. High living standards

3. Severe weather

4. Inadequate supplies of agricultural land

5. Family disagreements


Chapter 3

03.02 In 2007, which of the following countries had the greatest number of internal refugees?

1. Poland

2. Brazil

3. United States

4. China

5. Iraq


Chapter 3

03.02 In 2007, which of the following countries had the greatest number of internal refugees?

1. Poland

2. Brazil

3. United States

4. China

5. Iraq


Chapter 3

03.03 Moving from San Francisco to Iowa would be considered

1. International migration

2. Intraregional migration

3. Interregional migration

4. Forced migration

5. Net migration


Chapter 3

03.03 Moving from San Francisco to Iowa would be considered

1. International migration

2. Intraregional migration

3. Interregional migration

4. Forced migration

5. Net migration


Chapter 3

03.04 The largest source of international migrants is

1. North America

2. South America

3. Africa

4. Asia

5. Europe


Chapter 3

03.04 The largest source of international migrants is

1. North America

2. South America

3. Africa

4. Asia

5. Europe


Chapter 3

03.05 The most likely destination of international migrants is

1. North America

2. South America

3. Africa

4. Asia

5. Europe


Chapter 3

03.05 The most likely destination of international migrants is

1. North America

2. South America

3. Africa

4. Asia

5. Europe


Chapter 3

03.06 In which decade was immigration into the United States the lowest?

1. 1880s

2. 1900s

3. 1930s

4. 1970s

5. 1990s


Chapter 3

03.06 In which decade was immigration into the United States the lowest?

1. 1880s

2. 1900s

3. 1930s

4. 1970s

5. 1990s


Chapter 3

03.07 Which country has been the largest source of immigrants from Asia to the United States over the last two decades?

1. Vietnam

2. Philippines

3. South Korea

4. Japan

5. India


Chapter 3

03.07 Which country has been the largest source of immigrants from Asia to the United States over the last two decades?

1. Vietnam

2. Philippines

3. South Korea

4. Japan

5. India


Chapter 3

03.08 The greatest number of undocumented immigrants in the United States come from

1. Canada

2. Mexico

3. Caribbean

4. Europe

5. Asia


Chapter 3

03.08 The greatest number of undocumented immigrants in the United States come from

1. Canada

2. Mexico

3. Caribbean

4. Europe

5. Asia


Chapter 3

03.09 Cuban emigrants to the United States

1. Are considered political refugees

2. Typically support Fidel Castro

3. Settle primarily in and around New York City

4. Are usually turned back at sea

5. Usually try to return to Cuba


Chapter 3

03.09 Cuban emigrants to the United States

1. Are considered political refugees

2. Typically support Fidel Castro

3. Settle primarily in and around New York City

4. Are usually turned back at sea

5. Usually try to return to Cuba


Chapter 3

03.10 Which of the following was a new trend in western countries in the 1990s?

1. Urbania

2. Rural to urban migration

3. Counterurbanization

4. Urban to urban migration

5. Suburban to suburban migration


Chapter 3

03.10 Which of the following was a new trend in western countries in the 1990s?

1. Urbania

2. Rural to urban migration

3. Counterurbanization

4. Urban to urban migration

5. Suburban to suburban migration


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