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Chapter 4. The Leader as an Individual. Chapter Objectives. Identify major personality dimensions and understand how personality influences leadership and relationships within organizations. Clarify your instrumental and end values, and recognize how values guide thoughts and behavior.

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Chapter 4 l.jpg

Chapter 4

The Leader as an Individual


Chapter objectives l.jpg
Chapter Objectives

  • Identify major personality dimensions and understand how personality influences leadership and relationships within organizations.

  • Clarify your instrumental and end values, and recognize how values guide thoughts and behavior.

  • Define attitudes and explain their relationship to leader behavior.

  • Recognize individual differences in cognitive style and broaden your own thinking style to expand leadership potential.


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Chapter Objectives (contd.)

  • Practice aspects of charismatic leadership by pursuing a vision or idea that you care deeply about and want to share with others.

  • Apply the concepts that distinguish transformational from transactional leadership.


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Personality

The set of unseen characteristics and processes that underlie a relatively stable pattern of behavior in response to ideas, objects, and people in the environment


Ex 4 1 the big five personality dimensions l.jpg
Ex. 4.1 The Big Five Personality Dimensions

Outgoing, energetic, gregarious

Quiet, withdrawn, unassertive

Extroversion

Low

High

Warm, considerate, good-natured

Aloof, easily irritated

Agreeableness

Low

High

Impulsive, carefree

Responsible, dependable , goal-oriented

Conscientiousness

Low

High

Moody, tense, lower self-confidence

Stable, confident

Emotional Stability

Low

High

Imaginative, curious, open to new ideas

Narrow field of interests, likes the tried-and-true

Openness to Experience

Low

High


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Personality Traits

  • Locus of Control

    • Defines whether a person places the primary responsibility for what happens to him or her within himself/herself or on outside forces

  • Authoritarianism

    • The belief that power and status differences should exist in an organization


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Values

  • Fundamental beliefs that an individual considers to be important, that are relatively stable over time, and that have an impact on attitudes and behavior.

  • End Values

    • Sometimes called terminal values, these are beliefs about the kind of goals or outcomes that are worth trying to pursue.

  • Instrumental Values

    • Beliefs about the types of behavior that are appropriate for reaching goals.


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Attitude

  • An evaluation (either positive or negative) about people, events, or things.

  • Self-Concept

    • The collection of attitudes we have about ourselves; includes self-esteem and whether a person generally has a positive or negative feeling about him/herself.


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Theory X and Theory Y

Theory X: the assumption that people are basically lazy and not motivated to work and that they have a natural tendency to avoid responsibility

Theory Y: the assumption that people do not inherently dislike work and will commit themselves willingly to work that they care about


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Cognitive Style

How a person perceives, processes, interprets, and uses information


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Ex. 4.4 Hermann’s Whole Brain Model

D

Upper

right

A

Upper

left

Logical

Analytical

Fact-based

Quantitative

Holistic

Intuitive

Integrating

Synthesizing

Organized

Sequential

Planned

Detailed

Interpersonal

Feeling-based

Kinesthetic

Emotional

C

Lower

right

B

Lower

left


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Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)

Personality test that measures how individuals differ in gathering and evaluating information for solving problems and making decisions



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Ex. 4.5 Noncharismatic Leaders(contd.)


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Transactional versus Transformational Leadership Noncharismatic Leaders

Transactional leadership

a transaction or exchange process between leaders and followers

Transformational Leadership

leadership characterized by the ability to bring about significant change in followers and the organization


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