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A Study of Water Resources in Zimbabwe. Water Scarcity in Africa. Catherine Schoeninger and Danielle Yunker. http://www.bobjanet.demon.co.uk/urchin/4life/zimm.jpg. Welcome to Africa. Current Conditions Decline in water resources Insufficient food Sanitation issues

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Water Scarcity in Africa

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Water scarcity in africa l.jpg

A Study of Water Resources in Zimbabwe

Water Scarcity in Africa

Catherine Schoeninger and Danielle Yunker

http://www.bobjanet.demon.co.uk/urchin/4life/zimm.jpg


Welcome to africa l.jpg

Welcome to Africa

  • Current Conditions

    • Decline in water resources

    • Insufficient food

    • Sanitation issues

    • Extreme, unpredictable weather

  • 300 million people affected

  • What are the effects of water scarcity in Africa?

  • http://www.pewfellowships.org/resources/stories/zimbabwe_images/main_zimbabwe.jpg


    Zimbabwe l.jpg

    Zimbabwe

    • Natural Adversity

      • Population density

      • Climatic conditions

      • Landlocked geographic location

    • All lead to water supply problems

    http://www.unido-aaitpc.org/unido-aaitpc/new1/images/map_zimbabwe.gif


    High population density l.jpg

    High Population Density

    • Overcrowding adds to strain on resources

      • Housing

        • Multiple families in close proximity

        • No running water

      • Communal Well

        • Women and children fetch water

      • Communal Facilities

        • Designed for 8 people, now shared by over 50 people

    http://www.ministrytozimbabwe.com/woman%20carring%20water.jpg


    Sanitation issues l.jpg

    Sanitation Issues

    • Stem from overpopulation and inefficient infrastructure

      • Toilet

        • Same drain as shower

        • Blockages from use of newspaper as toilet paper

      • Pipe system

        • Bursts

        • Slow repair time

      • Contaminated water

        • Sakubva River

        • Children’s infected play area

    http://www.peacecorps.gov/wws/water/africa/countries/zimbabwe/ZW0301.html


    Health risks l.jpg

    Health Risks

    • Observed at Zimbabwean Health Clinics

      • Daily patient increase

      • Stem from contact with contaminated water

      • Specific diseases include:

        • Tuberculosis

        • Cholera

    http://www.open2.net/theservice/new_nurses/images/nurse_pt.jpg

    http://web.mit.edu/basch/www/images/red-cross.gif


    Climate conditions l.jpg

    Climate Conditions

    • 3 distinct seasons

      • Ranging from hot to cool and wet to dry

  • Unpredictable floods and droughts

  • Annual Average rainfall is 685 mm

    • 300-500 mm can come in one month

  • Difficult to plan crop cycle

  • http://www.peacecorps.gov/wws/water/africa/countries/zimbabwe/ZW0110.html


    Agriculture l.jpg

    Agriculture

    • Agricultural nation

    • Inconsistent harvests

      • Leads to malnourishment

      • Struggle for financial stability

    http://www.peopleandplanet.net/files/Zimbabwe%20farmers_Emmanuel%20KoroPYyJQD.jpg

    http://www.peacecorps.gov/wws/water/africa/countries/zimbabwe/ZW0125.html

    http://www.peacecorps.gov/wws/water/africa/countries/zimbabwe/ZW0213.html


    Possible solutions l.jpg

    Possible Solutions

    • Improved Infrastructure

    • Solar Stills

    • Conservation efforts

    • Spreading awareness

    http://www.villagehealth.org/Dsc00404.jpg


    Infrastructure l.jpg

    Infrastructure

    • International

      • Necessary because they are landlocked

      • Expand current system

    • National

      • Improve and increase existing system

    • Drawbacks

      • Need international cooperation

      • Leakage

      • Expensive – small countries can’t afford

    http://irc.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/leak/photo10b.jpg


    Solar stills l.jpg

    Solar Stills

    • Effective way to desalinize and purify water

    • Produces clean drinking water

    http://www.geda.org.in/solar/so_slr_still.htm

    http://www.i4at.org/surv/sstill.htm


    Water cycle l.jpg

    Water Cycle

    • Operates on water cycle properties

    http://www.i4at.org/surv/sstill.htm


    Analysis of solar stills l.jpg

    Analysis of Solar Stills

    Easy procedure

    Cost effective

    Dependent on abundant sunshine

    ADVANTAGES

    DISADVANTAGES

    http://www.borderpact.org/Grants%20Awardees%201999/Region%203/Images/stills1.jpg


    Conservation l.jpg

    Conservation

    • Efforts

      • Improved management

      • Refined infrastructure

        • Dependent on financial means

    http://www.capecairo.com/botswana/CCbotszim/mekoro.jpg


    Spreading awareness l.jpg

    Spreading Awareness

    • Advertising water conservation

      • Simple

      • Inexpensive

    http://us.news2.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/afp/20060406/capt.sge.gum86.060406222759.photo00.photo.default-380x252.jpg


    Slide16 l.jpg

    Questions???

    http://epederstad.k-nettet.com/main/graphics/uploaded/1660/thumb_zimbabwe%20m.jpg


    References l.jpg

    References

    • “AFRICA: Water management essential to break poverty”. OxResearch. Oxford. 17 March 2003.

      ProQuest Database. 15 February 2006.

    • Anonymous. “Africa with no rain, or too much”. The Economist. London. 13 December 1997. Volume 345, Issue 8047;  page 39. ProQuest Database. 15 February 2006.

    • Mansell, M.G., and Hussey, S.W. 2005. “An investigation of flows and losses within the alluvial sands of ephemeral rivers in Zimbabwe”. 314 (1-4): 192-203. Web of Knowledge Database. 13 February 2006.

    • Manzungu, E., and Machiridza R. 2005. “An analysis of water consumption and prospects for implementing water demand management at household level in the City of Harare, Zimbabwe”. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth. 30 (11-16): 925-934. Web of Knowledge Database. 13 February 2006.

    • Mukheli, A., Mosupye, G., and Swatuk, LA. “Is the Pungwe water supply project a solution to water accessibility and sanitation problems for the households of Sakubva, Zimbabwe”? Physics and Chemistry of the Earth. 27 (11-22): 723-732. Web of Knowledge Database. 13 February 2006.

    • Rijsberman, F.R. “Water scarcity: fact or fiction?”. 80 (1-3): 5-22. 2006. Web of Knowledge Database. 17 February 2006.

    • “Solar Stills”. Gujarat Energy Development Agency. 2003. 21 March 2006. http://www.geda.org.in/solar/so_slr_still.htm


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