The nature of science and scientific methods
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THE NATURE OF SCIENCE AND SCIENTIFIC METHODS. What is Science? How is Science Done?. SCIENCE IS:. http://pirun.ku.ac.th/~fscinpc /. a way of understanding the natural world based on our senses and instruments to enhance our senses exploration. CHARACTERISTICS OF SCIENCE.

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THE NATURE OF SCIENCE AND SCIENTIFIC METHODS

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The nature of science and scientific methods

THE NATURE OF SCIENCEAND SCIENTIFIC METHODS

What is Science?

How is Science Done?


Science is

SCIENCE IS:

http://pirun.ku.ac.th/~fscinpc/

  • a way of understanding the natural world

  • based on our senses and instruments to enhance our senses

  • exploration


Characteristics of science

CHARACTERISTICS OF SCIENCE

http://www.mathiaspedersen.com/3dportfolio/highres/poor_pluto_1600x900.jpg

  • tentative: subject to change

  • empirical: measurable in terms of real data

  • logical: organized and explanative

  • objective: based on supportive evidence

  • social: communicated among scientific community

  • creative: imaginative, fun, and useful (TECHNOLOGYis the practical application of science)


Science asks

SCIENCE ASKS:

  • What’s there?

  • How does it work?

  • How did it come to be this way?

http://pirun.ku.ac.th/~fscinpc/


Science is done

SCIENCE IS DONE

  • by EVERYONE, EVERYDAY

  • to develop new knowledge

  • using the SCIENTIFIC METHODas a way to collect data (general process) to answer a question


Scientific method

SCIENTIFIC METHOD

http://www.thwink.org/sustain/deadlock/WhyUnableToSolveProblem.htm

  • Many expressions of the scientific method!!!

  • ALL start with OBSERVATION information gatheredfrom the senses

  • After observation, steps do not have to be done “in order”

  • ALL “end” with sharing information& starting over


Observation

OBSERVATION

formal lab report

informal lab report

this information becomes the Introduction

this information is condensed into the purpose

  • Why is it that way?

  • What do other people know about this?

  • How can I find out more?


Inference hypothesis or prediction

INFERENCE?HYPOTHESIS? OR PREDICTION?

an explanation based on evidence and reasoning

an explanation based on evidence and reasoning

a guess at what will happen based on prior experience

INFERENCE

a testable explanation that guides an experiment

PREDICTION

HYPOTHESIS


An example

An Example

http://www.agronext.iastate.edu/corn/production/management/cropping/cornfollowcorn.html

OBSERVATION

Some plants are taller than others

Reading says

soybeans act as fertilizer

HYPOTHESIS

Corn with fertilizer will grow taller than corn without fertilizer

EXPERIMENT

Test hypothesis under controlled conditions


Design an experiment

DESIGN AN EXPERIMENT

CONTROL GROUP

receives “normal” treatment

EXPERIMENTAL GROUP

receives independent variable

A controlled experiment is a comparison of two or more groups with one differencebetween the groups

  • Corn will receive:

  • sunlight

  • water

  • soil

  • Corn will receive:

  • sunlight

  • water

  • soil

  • fertilizer

SAMPLE GROUP: Smaller group representative of population(example – political polls)


Varibles factors that can change

VARIBLES: Factors that can change

sunlight, water, soil

  • CONSTANT VARIABLE: factors that stay the same

fertilizer

  • INDEPENDENT VARIABLE:the difference between the groups; the factor manipulated (changed) by the experimenter

  • DEPENDENT VARIABLE:the measured result of the experiment; the factor that responds to the change

plant height


Experiment collect data

Experiment & Collect Data

DATA / EVIDENCE: “raw” or unprocessed measurements from the experiment

  • QUALITATIVE: (subjective): descriptive data, uses words, pictures

  • QUANTITATIVE: (objective): numerical data,from instruments

Height of corn with fertilizer was taller than control group

Height of corn with fertilizer averaged 2 cm taller than control group


Results analysis

RESULTS & ANALYSIS

  • What does your data mean?

  • RESULTS: evidence from experiment; organization of data

  • Tables, graphs, visual representation of data


Conclusions tell

CONCLUSIONS (TELL)

  • Make a CONCLUSION(explanation based on data)

  • Does the data support or refute the hypothesis?

  • Were there any ERRORS(sources of mistakes)?

  • Was there a way to improve the experiment?


What now

WHAT NOW????

After several experiments have been done, Scientists SHARE their findings and/or develop…

  • MODEL: graphical explanation or representation

  • THEORY: a well-tested hypothesis that is has not been proven wrong; generally accepted to be “correct,” unless disproven

  • LAW: a predictable relationship that is accepted as fact; often expressed as a formula (F=ma)

  • PRINCIPLE: a concept from which other ideas are derived


Overview of s m

OVERVIEW OF S.M.

http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project_scientific_method.shtm

  • Tests explanations

  • Refines ideas

  • Tests them again

  • Shares what happened


References

References

http://www.a2zteachersoutlet.com/images/cwg3503.gif

Various ideas/pictures from Integrated Science Team at Palisades Charter High School


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