Chapter 13  Urbanization and Solid and Hazardous Waste

Chapter 13 Urbanization and Solid and Hazardous Waste PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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13-1 What Are the Major Population Trends and Problems in Urban Areas? . Concept 13-1 Urbanization continues to increase steadily, and most cities are unsustainable because of high levels of resource use, waste, as well as pollution and poverty.. Half of the World's People Live in Urban Areas (1).

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Chapter 13 Urbanization and Solid and Hazardous Waste

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1. Chapter 13 Urbanization and Solid and Hazardous Waste

2. 13-1 What Are the Major Population Trends and Problems in Urban Areas? Concept 13-1 Urbanization continues to increase steadily, and most cities are unsustainable because of high levels of resource use, waste, as well as pollution and poverty.

3. Half of the World’s People Live in Urban Areas (1) Urbanization Creation and growth of urban and suburban areas Percentage of people who live in such areas Urban growth Rate of increase of urban populations Immigration from rural areas Pushed from rural areas to urban areas Pulled to urban areas from rural areas

4. Half of the World’s People Live in Urban Areas (2) Push factors Poverty Lack of land to grow food Declining labor market in agriculture War, famine, conflicts Pull factors Jobs, food, housing Education Health care

5. Half of the World’s People Live in Urban Areas (3) Four major trends Proportion of global population living in urban areas is increasing Number and size of urban areas is mushrooming Megacities, hypercities Urban growth slower in developed countries Poverty is becoming increasingly urbanized; mostly in less-developed countries

6. Global Outlook: Satellite Image of Major Urban Areas Throughout the World

7. Case Study: Urbanization in the United States (1) Four phases between 1800 and 2008 Migration from rural areas to large central cities Migration from large central cities to suburbs and smaller cities Migration from North and East to South and West Migration from cities and suburbs to developed areas outside the suburbs = exurbs Urbanization went from 5% to 79%

8. Case Study: Urbanization in the United States (2) Environmental problems decreasing Better working and housing Better water and sanitation Better health care Older cities Deteriorating services Aging infrastructures U.S. $2.2 trillion behind in infrastructure maintenance

9. Urban Sprawl Gobbles Up the Countryside Urban sprawl Low-density development at edges of cities/towns Contributing factors to urban sprawl in the U.S. Ample land Low-cost gasoline; highways Tax laws encouraged home ownership State and local zoning laws Multiple political jurisdictions

10. Urban Areas in North America

11. Natural Capital Degradation: Urban Sprawl

12. U.S. Megalopolis of Bowash

13. Urbanization Has Advantages (1) Centers of: Economic development Innovation Education Technological advances Jobs Industry, commerce, transportation

14. Urbanization Has Advantages (2) Urban residents tend to have Longer lives Lower infant mortality Better medical care Better social services More recycling programs Concentrating people in cities can help preserve biodiversity in rural areas

15. Urbanization Has Disadvantages (1) Huge ecological footprints Lack vegetation Water problems

16. Urbanization Has Disadvantages (2) Concentrate pollution and health problems Excessive noise Different climate and experience light pollution

17. Natural Capital Degradation: Urban Areas Rarely Are Sustainable Systems

19. Life Is a Desperate Struggle for the Urban Poor in Developing Countries Slums Squatter settlements/shantytowns Terrible living conditions Lack basic water and sanitation High levels of pollution What can governments do to help?

20. Case Study: Mexico City Urban area in crisis Severe air pollution Water pollution 50% Unemployment Deafening noise Overcrowding Traffic congestion Inadequate public transportation 1/3 live in slums (barrios) or squatter settlements What progress is being made?

21. 13-2 How Does Transportation Affect Urban Environmental Impacts? Concept 13-2 In some countries, many people live in widely dispersed urban areas and depend mostly on motor vehicles for their transportation, which greatly expands their ecological footprints.

22. Cities Can Grow Outward or Upward Compact cities Hong Kong, China Tokyo, Japan Mass transit Dispersed cities U.S. and Canada Car-centered cities

23. Motor Vehicles Have Advantages and Disadvantages (1) Advantages Mobility and convenience Jobs in Production and repair of vehicles Supplying fuel Building roads Status symbol

24. Motor Vehicles Have Advantages and Disadvantages (2) Disadvantages Accidents: 1.2 million per year, 15 million injured Kill 50 million animals per year Largest source of outdoor air pollution Helped create urban sprawl Traffic congestion

25. Reducing Automobile Use Is Not Easy, but It Can Be Done (1) Full-cost pricing: high gasoline taxes Educate consumers first Use funds for mass transit Opposition from car owners and industry Lack of good public transit is a problem Rapid mass transit Difficult to pass in the United States Strong public opposition Dispersed nature of the U.S.

26. Reducing Automobile Use Is Not Easy, but It Can Be Done (2) Raise parking fees Tolls on roads, tunnels, and bridges into major cities Charge a fee to drive into a major city Car-sharing

27. It is Difficult to Reduce Automobile Use (3) Bicycles Heavy-rail systems Light-rail systems Buses Rapid-rail system between urban areas

28. Trade-Offs: Bicycles

29. Trade-Offs: Mass Transit Rail

30. Trade-Offs: Buses

31. Trade-Offs: Rapid Rail

32. 13-3 How Can Cities Become More Sustainable and Livable? Concept 13-3A Urban land-use planning can reduce uncontrolled sprawl and slow the resulting degradation of air, water, land, biodiversity, and other natural resources. Concept 13-3B An ecocity allows people to choose walking, biking, or mass transit for most transportation needs; to recycle or reuse most of their wastes; to grow much of their food; and protect biodiversity by preserving surrounding land.

33. Smart Growth Works (1) Smart growth Reduces dependence on cars Controls and directs sprawl Cuts wasteful resource Uses zoning laws to channel growth

34. Smart Growth Works (2) Curitiba, Brazil China: stand on urban sprawl Europe: compact cities

35. Solutions: Smart Growth Tools

36. The Ecocity Concept: Cities for People Not Cars Ecocities or green cities Build and redesign for people Use renewable energy resources Recycle and purify water Use energy and matter resources efficiently Prevent pollution and reduce waste Recycle, reuse and compost municipal waste Protect and support biodiversity Urban gardens; farmers markets Zoning and other tools for sustainability

37. Case Study: The Ecocity Concept in Curitiba, Brazil Ecocity, green city: Curitiba, Brazil Bus system: cars banned in certain areas Housing and industrial parks Recycling of materials Helping the poor New challenges

38. 13-4 What Are Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste, and Why Are They Problems? Concept 13-4 Solid waste contributes to pollution and represents the unnecessary consumption of resources; hazardous waste contributes to pollution, natural capital degradation, and human health problems.

39. We Throw Away Huge Amounts of Useful Things and Hazardous Materials (1) Solid waste Industrial solid waste Mines, farms, industries Municipal solid waste (MSW) Trash Hazardous waste (toxic waste) Threatens human health of the environment Organic compounds Toxic heavy metals Radioactive waste

40. We Throw Away Huge Amounts of Useful Things and Hazardous Materials (2) 80–90% of hazardous wastes produced by developed countries Why reduce solid wastes? ľ of the materials are an unnecessary waste of the earth's resources Huge amounts of air pollution, greenhouse gases, and water pollution

41. Case Study: Solid Waste in the United States Leader in solid waste problem What is thrown away? Leader in trash production, by weight, per person Recycling is helping

42. What Harmful Chemicals Are in Your Home?

43. Electronic Waste is a Growing Problem (1) Electronic waste, e-waste: fastest growing solid waste problem Composition includes High-quality plastics Valuable metals Toxic and hazardous pollutants

44. Electronic Waste is a Growing Problem (2) Shipped to other countries What happens in China? International Basel Convention Bans transferring hazardous wastes from developed countries to developing countries Not signed by the United States European Union Cradle-to-grave approach

45. Electronic Waste is a Growing Problem (3) What should be done? Recycle E-cycle Reuse Prevention approach: remove the toxic materials

46. 13-5 What Should We Do With Solid Waste? Concept 13-5A A sustainable approach to solid waste is first to reduce it, then to reuse or recycle it, and finally to safely dispose of what is left. Concept 13-5B Technologies for burning and burying solid wastes are well developed, but burning contributes to pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, and buried wastes eventually contribute to the pollution and degradation of land and water resources.

47. We Can Burn or Bury Solid Waste or Produce Less of It Waste Management Reduce harm, but not amounts Waste Reduction Use less and focus on reuse, recycle, compost Integrated waste management Uses a variety of strategies

48. Integrated Waste Management: Priorities for Dealing with Solid Waste

49. We Can Cut Solid Wastes by Reducing, Reusing, and Recycling (1) Waste reduction is based on Reduce Reuse Recycle

50. We Can Cut Solid Wastes by Reducing, Reusing, and Recycling (2) Six strategies: Redesign manufacturing processes and products to use less material and energy Develop products that are easy to repair, reuse, remanufacture, compost, or recycle Eliminate or reduce unnecessary packaging Use fee-per-bag waste collection systems Establish cradle-to grave responsibility Restructure urban transportation systems

51. What Can You Do? Solid Waste

52. Reuse: Important Way to Reduce Solid Waste, Pollution and to Save Money Reuse: clean and use materials over and over Downside of reuse in developing countries Salvaging poor exposed to toxins Flea markets, yard sales, second-hand stores, eBay, Craigslist, Rechargeable batteries

53. Case Study: Use of Refillable Containers Reuse and recycle Refillable glass beverage bottles Refillable soft drink bottles made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic Bottle deposits create jobs and reduce litter and landfill amounts Paper, plastic, or reusable cloth bags Pros Cons

54. What Can You Do? Reuse

55. There Are Two Types of Recycling (1) Primary, closed-loop recycling Materials recycled into same type: aluminum cans Secondary recycling Materials converted to other products: tires Types of wastes that can be recycled Preconsumer: internal waste Postconsumer: external waste

56. There Are Two Types of Recycling (2) Do items actually get recycled? What are the numbers?

57. We Can Mix or Separate Household Solid Wastes for Recycling Materials-recovery facilities (MRFs) Can encourage increased trash production Source separation Pay-as-you-throw Fee-per-bag Which program is more cost effective? Which is friendlier to the environment?

58. Science Focus: Bioplastics (1) Plastics from soybeans: not a new concept Key to bioplastics: catalysts that speed reactions Sources Corn Soy Sugarcane

59. Science Focus: Bioplastics (2) Sources cont… Switchgrass Chicken feathers Some garbage CO2 from coal-burning plant emissions Benefits: lighter, stronger, cheaper, and biodegradable

60. Case Study: Recycling Plastics (1) Plastics: composed of resins created from oil and natural gas Most containers discarded: 4% recycled Litter: beaches, oceans Kills wildlife Gets into food chain and seafood

61. Case Study: Recycling Plastics (2) Low plastic recycling rate Hard to isolate one type of plastic Low yields of plastic Cheaper to make it new

62. We Can Copy Nature and Recycle Biodegradable Solid Wastes Composting Individual Municipal Benefits

63. Recycling Has Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages Disadvantages

64. Trade-Offs: Recycling

65. We Can Encourage Reuse and Recycling (1) What hinders reuse and recycling? Market prices don’t include harmful costs associated with production, use, discarding Recycling industries get less favorable government treatment than large industries do Prices for recycled materials fluctuate

66. We Can Encourage Reuse and Recycling (2) Encourage reuse and recycling Government Increase subsidies and tax breaks for using such products Decrease subsidies and tax breaks for making items from virgin resources Fee-per-bag collection New laws Citizen pressure

67. Burning Solid Waste Has Advantages and Disadvantages Waste-to-energy incinerators 600 Globally Most in Great Britain Advantages Disadvantages

68. Solutions: A Waste-to-Energy Incinerator with Pollution Controls

71. Trade-Offs: Incineration

72. Burying Solid Waste Has Advantages and Disadvantages Open dumps Widely used in less-developed countries Rare in developed countries Sanitary landfills

73. Solutions: State-of-the-Art Sanitary Landfill

76. Trade-Offs: Sanitary Landfills

77. 13-6 How Should We Deal with Hazardous Waste? Concept 13-6 A sustainable approach to hazardous waste is first to produce less of it, then to reuse or recycle it, then to convert it to less hazardous materials, and finally to safely store what is left.

78. We Can Use Integrated Management of Hazardous Waste Integrated management of hazardous wastes Produce less Convert to less hazardous substances Rest in long-term safe storage Increased use for postconsumer hazardous waste

79. Integrated Hazardous Waste Management 13-2013-20

80. We Can Detoxify Hazardous Wastes Collect and then detoxify Physical methods Chemical methods Bioremediation Phytoremediation Incineration

81. We Can Store Some Forms of Hazardous Waste (1) Burial on land or long-term storage Last resort only Deep-well disposal 64% of hazardous liquid wastes in the U.S.

82. Trade-Offs: Deep-Well Disposal

83. We Can Store Some Forms of Hazardous Waste (2) Surface impoundments Lined ponds or pits Secure hazardous landfills

84. Trade-Offs Surface Impoundments

85. Solutions: Secure Hazardous Waste Landfill

87. What Can You Do? Hazardous Waste

88. Case Study: Hazardous Waste Regulation in the United States (1) 1976: Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) EPA sets standards and gives permits Cradle to grave Covers only 5% of hazardous wastes

89. Case Study: Hazardous Waste Regulation in the United States (2) 1980: Comprehensive Environmental, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List 2010: 1300 sites, 340 sites cleaned so far Pace of cleanup has slowed Superfund is broke Laws encouraging the cleanup of brownfields

90. 13-7 How Can We Make the Transition to a More Sustainable Low-Waste Society? Concept 13-7 Shifting to a low-waste society will require individuals and businesses to reduce resource use and to reuse and recycle more of their wastes at local, national, and global levels.

91. Grassroots Action Has Led to Better Solid and Hazardous Waste Management “Not in my backyard” Produce less waste “Not in anyone’s backyard” “Not on planet Earth” Environmental Justice Everyone is entitled to protection from environmental hazards Discrimination

92. International Treaties Have Reduced Hazardous Waste (1) Basel Convention 1992: in effect 1995 amendment: bans all transfers of hazardous wastes from industrialized countries to less-developed countries 2009: Ratified by 195 countries, but not the United States

93. International Treaties Have Reduced Hazardous Waste (2) 2000: Delegates from 122 countries completed a global treaty Control 12 persistent organic pollutants (POPs) “Dirty dozen” DDT, PCBs, dioxins Everyone on earth has POPs in blood 2000: Swedish Parliament law By 2020 ban all chemicals that are persistent and can accumulate in living tissue

94. We Can Make the Transition to Low-Waste Societies Norway, Austria, and the Netherlands Committed to reduce resource waste by 75% East Hampton, NY, U.S. Reduced solid waste by 85% Follow guidelines to prevent pollution and reduce waste

95. Case Study: Industrial Ecosystems: Copying Nature Biomimicry: using natural principles to solve human problems Nature: wastes of one organism are nutrients for another; apply to industry Ecoindustrial parks Two major steps of biomimicry Observe how natural systems respond Apply to human industrial systems

96. Industrial Ecosystem in Denmark

98. Three Big Ideas Most expanding urban areas are unsustainable with their large and growing ecological footprints and high levels of poverty, but most urban areas can be made more sustainable and livable.

99. Three Big Ideas The order of priorities for dealing with solid and hazardous wastes should be to produces less of them, reuse and recycle as much waste as possible, convert hazardous material to less hazardous material, and safely store or dispose of what is left. We need to view solid wastes as wasted resources and hazardous wastes as materials that we should not be producing in the first place.

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