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Multilingualism in Europe, policy and some case studies. Cor van der Meer Mercator European Research Centre on Multilingualism and Language Learning Fryske Akademy Conference Kazakhstan 16-17 April, 2013. Overview.

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Multilingualism in Europe,

policy and some case studies

Cor van der Meer

Mercator European Research Centre on

Multilingualism and Language Learning

Fryske Akademy

Conference Kazakhstan 16-17 April, 2013


Overview

  • Fryslân and the Mercator European Research Centre on Multilingualism and Language Learning

  • Multilingualism in Europe

  • Some case studies


Visit Chinese delegation, November 2010


Well-known outside Fryslân


Frisian in Fryslân (Netherlands)

  • Autochthonous minority language

  • Western Germanic language

  • Fryslân has 640,000 inhabitants

  • 55% has Frisian as mother tongue (= 350.000 speakers)

  • BUT: Frisian is successful as second language:

  • 65% can read Frisian;

  • 74% can speak Frisian;

  • 94% comprehends Frisian.


Mercator European Research Centre on Multilingualism and Language Learning

  • Platform in Europe and beyond

  • Information/documentation and Research Centre.

  • Funded by the Province of Fryslân and the municipality of Ljouwert/Leeuwarden.


Mercator’s activities

  • Research

  • Publications & databases

  • Network of Schools

  • Conferences & seminars

  • Projects

  • Q&A service


Fields of research

  • Added value of multilingualism and multilingual education.

  • New technologies; distant language (and culture) learning.

  • Application of the CEFR and the ELP in Europe.

  • Informal learning and promotion of reading in families & households.


Publications

  • Research reports

  • Articles

  • Newsletters

  • Regional dossiers series

  • - > 40 language descriptions

  • - Update every 5-8 years

  • - Online available


www.networkofschools.eu


Projects

  • Mercator Network of Language Diversity Centres

  • MELT: Multilingual Early Language Transmission

  • EUNoM: The European Universities’ Network on Multilingualism

  • More Languages, More Opportunities

  • Added Value of Multilingualism

  • Language Rich Europe

  • Poliglotti4.eu


Study Visits


European Values

  • Non discrimination

  • Mutual respect & understanding

  • Right on Education in mother tongue


European Perspective

  • European Union

  • - Lisbon treaty: EU shall respect diversity in religion, culture & language

  • - Communication on Multilingualism (M+2)

  • Council of Europe

  • - CRMLS

  • - FCNM


Context

  • Multilingualism is a declared goal of the European Commission

  • Barcelona goal: mother tongue + 2 foreign languages

  • There are many activities in the field of multilingualism

  • Strategic framework for European co-operation in Education and Training (ET 2020)


Reference document of the European Commission

  • The Council conclusions for European co-operation in Education and Training ("ET 2020")

  • New skills for new jobs

  • New technologies, innovation and creativity

  • Key skills – computers, reading, maths, natural sciences

  • Early leavers from education and training, immigrants, learners with special needs


ET 2020 – 4 STRATEGIC GOALS

  • Realise lifelong learning and mobility

  • Improve quality and efficiency of education and training

  • Promote equality, social cohesion and active citizenship

  • Promote innovation and creativity – including entrepreneurial spirit – at all levels of education and training


INDICATORS AND BENCHMARKS UNTIL 2020

  • Part of early leavers from education and training should be <10%

  • At least 95% of children aged between 4 and the legal school entrance age should get a preschool education

  • Pay special attention to: mobility, employability, foreign language acquisition (mother tongue + 2)


Why bilingual education?

  • Right on education in mother tongue

  • Pedagogical development

  • Social integration

  • Cultural participation

  • Language maintenance


European languages

State languages: English, Spanish, French, Dutch

Immigrant minority languages: Turkish, Arabic

Sign languages

Regional or minority languages

Unique Minority Languages

Minority Languages with a kin-state


Education in Fryslân

Visit Kazakh delegation February 2010


Trilingual education in Fryslân (1)

  • Model used:

  • - Group 1-6: 50 % Frisian, 50 % Dutch

  • - Group 7-8: 40 % Frisian, 40 % Dutch, 20% English

  • Systematic use of Frisian, Dutch and English as a medium of instruction.

  • Interactive language education


Trilingual education in Fryslân (2)

  • Results:

  • - Good quality of Frisian

  • - Results of Dutch at the same level at the end of grade 8 as all other pupils in the Netherlands

  • - Results for English slightly better, but not significantly


Education in the Basque Country

Percentage of pupils in the three language school models

(Gorter & Cenoz, 2011)


Frisian and Basque compared

  • Both receive legal support

  • Both have problems in the production of educational materials

  • Limited availability of qualified teachers

  • Effects of Globalisation: immigration, tourism, new technologies of communication (social media)

  • Strong demand for English from parents


Unique and Cross-border languages

  • Differences:

    Orientation and possibly in tensions

  • Similarities in ambitions:

    Peaceful, mutual respect

  • Every child: two mother tongues +2


Cross border languages

  • German in Italy

    • Teacher training

    • Teaching materials,

      • Only partly shared with

      • kin states


Good Practice

  • Swedish in Finland

    • Teacher Training

    • Teaching material

    • Good co-operation


Recommendations

  • Two mother tongue education

  • Two-way language learning

  • Common minimum European standards

  • Receptive bi-lingualism

  • A-symmetry in conversation

  • Devolvement of power

  • Explore new ICT technologies


Conclusions

  • Same problem area’s everywhere

  • There is no overall solution

  • There are good practices available

  • New opportunities with ICT

  • If you need more information, please visit our website www.mercator-research.eu


www.mercator-research.eu

[email protected]

Mersi dit

Tak

Danke

Thank you

Dzãczi

Haristo

Tige tank

Hvala

Teşekkür ederim

Köszönöm

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