Lecture 7
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LECTURE 7. EXTERNALITY BERKELEY AND THE EXTERNAL WORLD. THE EXISTENCE OF THE “EXTERNAL WORLD”. IT IS PART OF THE MODERN WESTERN COMMONSENSE METAPHYSIC THAT THERE ARE OBJECTS WHOSE EXISTENCE IS INDEPENDENT OF ANYTHING MENTAL.

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LECTURE 7

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Lecture 7

LECTURE 7

EXTERNALITY

BERKELEY AND THE EXTERNAL WORLD


The existence of the external world

THE EXISTENCE OF THE “EXTERNAL WORLD”

IT IS PART OF THE MODERN WESTERN COMMONSENSE METAPHYSIC THAT THERE ARE OBJECTS WHOSE EXISTENCE IS INDEPENDENT OF ANYTHING MENTAL.

VAN INWAGEN LISTS: THE TAJ MAHAL AND JULIUS CAESAR’S BODY. WE ALL BELIEVE THAT THESE THINGS EXIST (OR ONCE EXISTED) AND THEY ARE NOT MENTAL ENTITIES: MINDS OR THE CONTENTS OF MINDS


The taj mahal agra india

THE TAJ MAHAL (AGRA, INDIA)


A sculpture of julius caesar

A SCULPTURE OF JULIUS CAESAR


That these things came to exist depends on the mental

THAT THESE THINGS CAME TO EXIST DEPENDS ON THE MENTAL

  • THE TAJ MAHAL WAS DESIGNED AND BUILT BY PEOPLE WHO HAD MINDS.

    (2) THE SCULPTURE OF JULIUS CAESAR WAS SCULPTED BY AN ARTIST – A BEING WITH A MIND.

    BUT THEIR CONTINUED EXISTENCE DOES NOT DEPEND ON ANY MINDS (AT LEAST NOT THE MINDS OF HUMAN BEINGS).


The internal vs the external world

THE INTERNAL VS. THE EXTERNAL WORLD

  • WE ARE CERTAIN ABOUT THE EXISTENCE AND NATURE OF ASPECTS OF OUR EXPERIENCE – IN A WAY THAT WE ARE NOT CERTAIN ABOUT THE EXISTENCE OF “MATERIAL OBJECTS”.

  • CONSIDER: INTENSE PAINS, VISUAL EXPERIENCES, AUDITORY EXPERIENCES, THOUGHTS, IMAGININGS, AND SO ON.


Skeptical arguments about the external world

SKEPTICAL ARGUMENTS ABOUT THE “EXTERNAL WORLD”

THE DREAMING ARGUMENT

THE EVIL GENIUS (OR BETTER: EVIL DEMON)

THE MATRIX

THE BRAIN IN A VAT


The evil demon

THE EVIL DEMON

BOY, I WISH THIS LECTURE WOULD BE OVER!


The brain thinks he is listening to a philosophy lecture

THE BRAIN THINKS HE IS LISTENING TO A PHILOSOPHY LECTURE

THIS PROFESSOR IS CRAZY! HE SAYS I DON’T KNOW I’M NOT A BRAIN IN A VAT!


No philosopher has been able to prove the existence of an external world

NO PHILOSOPHER HAS BEEN ABLE TO PROVE THE EXISTENCE OF AN “EXTERNAL WORLD”

IMMANUEL KANT


George berkeley and the external world

GEORGE BERKELEY AND THE “EXTERNAL WORLD”

  • PHILOSOPHERS HAVE MISTAKELY THOUGHT THAT THERE WERE SOMEHOW “OUT THERE” MATERIAL SUBSTANCES. THE OBJECTS OF COMMON SENSE DO EXIST: APPLES, THE TAJ MAHAL, AND SCULPTURES. BUT THEY AREN’T “BEYOND THE VEIL OF PERCEPTION” AS SOME PHILOSOPHERS HAVE THOUGHT. THE WHOLE PROBLEM OF THE “EXTERNAL WORLD” IS A CONFUSION.


Bishop berkeley idealist

BISHOP BERKELEY: IDEALIST

GEORGE BERKELEY, BISHOP OF CLOYNE

1685-1753


What are the immediate objects of perception

WHAT ARE THE IMMEDIATE OBJECTS OF PERCEPTION?

PHILONOUS REPRESENTS BERKELEY. HYLAS IS A PHILOSOPHICALLY EDUCATED FOIL FOR BERKELEY’S ARGUMENTS.

  • WHAT IS A “SENSIBLE ‘OBJECT’”?

    A SENSIBLE OBJECT IS AN IMMEDIATE OBJECT OF PERCEPTION


What is immediately perceived

WHAT IS IMMEDIATELY PERCEIVED?


Color shape texture taste smell etc

COLOR, SHAPE, TEXTURE, TASTE, SMELL, ETC.

THE IMMEDIATELY PERCEIVED QUALITIES OF THE APPLE ARE ITS COLOR, ITS SHAPE, ITS TEXTURE, SMELL AND TASTE. IS THERE SOMETHING ELSE “BEYOND” THESE QUALITIES – THE “APPLE ITSELF”, A MATERIAL SUBSTRATE OR SUBSTANCE IN WHICH THE QUALITIES INHERE? IF SO, IT IS NOT PERCEIVED.


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