Najran university college of applied medical sciences
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Najran University College of Applied Medical Sciences. Hepatitis viruses (Cont.) BY Dr. Ahmed Morad Asaad Associate Professor of Microbiology Coordinator of Applied Medical Sciences College. Laboratory diagnosis of HBV (Continuous)

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Najran University College of Applied Medical Sciences

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Najran UniversityCollege of Applied Medical Sciences

Hepatitis viruses (Cont.)


Dr. Ahmed MoradAsaad

Associate Professor of Microbiology

Coordinator of Applied Medical Sciences College

  • Laboratory diagnosis of HBV (Continuous)

  • Depends on detection of circulating viral antigens and antibodies (Markers of HBV infection)


  • Antigens: HBs Ag, HBe Ag

  • Antibodies: Anti HBs Ab, Anti HBcAb, Anti HBeAb:

  • BY PCR

  • Detection of Viral DNA by PCR

  • Prophylaxis

  • Pre-exposure prophylaxis

  • By active vaccination for those at high risk and for newborns as a part of the immunization schedule

  • 2 types of the vaccine:

  • Prophylaxis

  • Post-exposure prophylaxis

  • Persons exposed by brick of contaminated needles

  • Infants borne to HBs Ag positive mothers

  • They should receive immediately hepatitis B specific immunoglobulin (HBIG) and Hepatitis B vaccine

  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV)

  • It is transmitted primarily by blood

  • At high risk:

  • 1- Intravenous drug users

  • 2- Haemodialysis patients

  • 3- Health care workers

  • 4- Sexual transmission and from mother to infant are difficult to be documented

  • IP is 8 weeks in average

  • Acute HCV infection is milder than HBV

  • Most infections are asymptomatic and jaundice occurs in 25 % of patients

  • 75% of cases proceed to chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma

  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV)

  • Laboratory diagnosis

  • 1- Detection of anti HCV Ab by ELISA:

  • It does not distinguish between acute, chronic or resolved infections

  • RIBA (recombinant immunoblot assay)should be performed as a confirmatory test due to false-positive results in ELISA

  • 2- Detection of HCV DNA by PCR to detect active disease

  • Prophylaxis

  • NO vaccine is available

Hepatitis D virus (HDV) (Delta hepatitis)

It is a defective virus: Replicates only in HBV-infected patients. In blood, the virus is present surrounded by HBs Ag envelope (HBs Ag coat)

Mode of transmission is similar to HBV

IP is 2-12 weeks

It participates in increasing the incidence of HBV complications leading to chronic active fulminant hepatitis

Diagnosis by detection of anti HDV AbIgM by ELISA

Hepatitis E virus (HEV)

It was called non-A non-B agent and now is called HEV

Infection occurs by faeco-oral route

Epidemics are reported with high mortality rates

Diagnosis by detection of anti HEV Abs IgM and IgG by ELISA

Hepatitis G virus (HGV)

A recently discovered RNA virus belonging to flaviviruses

Occurs as co-infection with HCV or HBV

Transmitted parentarlly

No relation with cirrhosis or carcinoma

Diagnosis: Detection of anti HGV Ab by ELISA – detection of HGV RNA by PCR

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