Najran university college of applied medical sciences
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Najran University College of Applied Medical Sciences. Hepatitis viruses (Cont.) BY Dr. Ahmed Morad Asaad Associate Professor of Microbiology Coordinator of Applied Medical Sciences College. Laboratory diagnosis of HBV (Continuous)

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Najran University College of Applied Medical Sciences

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Najran university college of applied medical sciences

Najran UniversityCollege of Applied Medical Sciences

Hepatitis viruses (Cont.)

BY

Dr. Ahmed MoradAsaad

Associate Professor of Microbiology

Coordinator of Applied Medical Sciences College


Najran university college of applied medical sciences

  • Laboratory diagnosis of HBV (Continuous)

  • Depends on detection of circulating viral antigens and antibodies (Markers of HBV infection)

  • BY ELISA

  • Antigens: HBs Ag, HBe Ag

  • Antibodies: Anti HBs Ab, Anti HBcAb, Anti HBeAb:

  • BY PCR

  • Detection of Viral DNA by PCR


Najran university college of applied medical sciences

  • Prophylaxis

  • Pre-exposure prophylaxis

  • By active vaccination for those at high risk and for newborns as a part of the immunization schedule

  • 2 types of the vaccine:


Najran university college of applied medical sciences

  • Prophylaxis

  • Post-exposure prophylaxis

  • Persons exposed by brick of contaminated needles

  • Infants borne to HBs Ag positive mothers

  • They should receive immediately hepatitis B specific immunoglobulin (HBIG) and Hepatitis B vaccine


Najran university college of applied medical sciences

  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV)

  • It is transmitted primarily by blood

  • At high risk:

  • 1- Intravenous drug users

  • 2- Haemodialysis patients

  • 3- Health care workers

  • 4- Sexual transmission and from mother to infant are difficult to be documented

  • IP is 8 weeks in average

  • Acute HCV infection is milder than HBV

  • Most infections are asymptomatic and jaundice occurs in 25 % of patients

  • 75% of cases proceed to chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma


Najran university college of applied medical sciences

  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV)

  • Laboratory diagnosis

  • 1- Detection of anti HCV Ab by ELISA:

  • It does not distinguish between acute, chronic or resolved infections

  • RIBA (recombinant immunoblot assay)should be performed as a confirmatory test due to false-positive results in ELISA

  • 2- Detection of HCV DNA by PCR to detect active disease

  • Prophylaxis

  • NO vaccine is available


Najran university college of applied medical sciences

Hepatitis D virus (HDV) (Delta hepatitis)

It is a defective virus: Replicates only in HBV-infected patients. In blood, the virus is present surrounded by HBs Ag envelope (HBs Ag coat)

Mode of transmission is similar to HBV

IP is 2-12 weeks

It participates in increasing the incidence of HBV complications leading to chronic active fulminant hepatitis

Diagnosis by detection of anti HDV AbIgM by ELISA


Najran university college of applied medical sciences

Hepatitis E virus (HEV)

It was called non-A non-B agent and now is called HEV

Infection occurs by faeco-oral route

Epidemics are reported with high mortality rates

Diagnosis by detection of anti HEV Abs IgM and IgG by ELISA


Najran university college of applied medical sciences

Hepatitis G virus (HGV)

A recently discovered RNA virus belonging to flaviviruses

Occurs as co-infection with HCV or HBV

Transmitted parentarlly

No relation with cirrhosis or carcinoma

Diagnosis: Detection of anti HGV Ab by ELISA – detection of HGV RNA by PCR


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