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Chapter 2 The Science of Biology . What is Science?. Science is derived from a Latin verb meaning “ to know. ” . Inquiry. What is inquiry? A- People ask questions about what they observe in nature and actively seek answers. Ex. Houseplants grow toward a light source.

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Chapter 2 the science of biology

Chapter 2The Science of Biology

What is science
What is Science?

  • Science is derived from a Latin verb meaning “to know.”


  • What is inquiry?

  • A- People ask questions about what they observe in nature and actively seek answers.

  • Ex. Houseplants grow toward a light source.

  • If we rotate the plant will its direction of growth still go toward light source?

  • What direction would the plant grow

    In the dark?

Observation and data
Observation and Data

  • The questions that drive scientific inquiry are based on observations.

  • Observation-

  • Use of senses (vision or hearing) to gather information.

  • Data- Recorded observations.

Quantitative vs qualitative data
Quantitative vs Qualitative Data

  • Quantitative:

  • Collecting data with numbers.

  • Ex. Measurements.

  • Qualitative:

  • Writing with descriptions instead of measurements. Pictures and drawings.

  • Ex. Jane Goodall spent decades recording her

    observations of chimpanzee behavior in the jungle.

Quantitative vs qualitative
Quantitative vsQualitative?

  • 1. The lion woke up at sunrise everyday and cleaned his paws. This lion mated with the females lions.

  • A. Qualitative

Quantitative vs qualitative1
Quantitative vsQualitative?

  • 2.

  • There were 7 ant hills in the grass.

  • The alligator grew 1 inch every week.

  • A. Quantitative


  • Inference- A logical conclusion based on observations and prior knowledge.

  • Ex. What can you infer if you hear a doorbell ring?

  • A. When a doorbell rings you infer that someone is at the door.

  • Observation:

  • Four place setting

  • No drinking cups

  • Empty plates

  • Infer:

  • Four people

  • Food is somewhere hidden

  • Drinks will be from cans

What can you observe from this graph
What can you observe from this graph?

  • Girls start out taller than boys

  • Boys eventually are taller than girls

2 2 hypothesis the scientific method
2.2 Hypothesis “The Scientific Method”

  • Hypothesis- Is a suggested answer to a well-defined scientific question or an explanation on trial.


  • It’s late at night and you hear thunder and rain. Wind begins to pick up and you see a tree fall. Your power goes out. What do you reach for?

  • A. Flashlight

  • The flash light does not work!


  • What is our observation?

  • Flashlight does not work.

  • What is our question?

  • What’s wrong with the flashlight?

  • What is our hypothesis?

  • The batteries are dead.


  • What is our prediction?

  • If the batteries are dead and we replace them, the flashlight will work.

  • What is our test?

  • Replace the batteries.

Designing a controlled experiment
Designing a Controlled Experiment

  • Variable-

  • A condition that can differ within the experiment.

  • Controlled Experiment-

  • An experiment that tests the effect of a single variable.

Case study snakes
Case Study Snakes

  • Many poisonous animals are brightly colored with distinctive patterns. There are also mimics.

  • Coral snake (poisonous) Scarlet king snake (Not p)

What is the function of mimicry
What is the function of mimicry?

  • What kind of experiment can you design to find the function of mimicry?

  • Observation?

  • Both types of snakes have red, yellow, and black rings.

  • Question?

  • What is the function of the kingsnakes’ mimicry of coral snakes?

  • Hypothesis?

  • Mimicry of coral snakes helps protect the kingsnake from predators.

  • Prediction?

  • If predators confuse the kingsnakes with coral snakes, then predators should attack fewer ringed snakes than brown artificial snakes.

  • Experiment?

  • Scientists place brown artificial snakes in forest and see how many attack it gets from predators compared to ringed snake.

Scientific method gone wrong
Scientific method gone wrong!


  • Observation:

  • Village thinks a woman is a witch.

  • Question:

  • Is she a witch?!

  • Hypothesis:

  • “If she weighs the same as a duck, then she’s made of wood, therefor SHE’S A WITCH!”

  • Test:

  • “She’s a witch, burn her!”

2 3 understanding science
2.3 Understanding Science

Are these figures real? What do you need to prove that they are real?


  • Evidence-

  • Consists of a collected body of data from observations and experiments.

  • Theory-

  • A well-tested explanation that makes sense of a great variety of scientific observations.

Hypothesis vs theory
Hypothesis vs Theory

  • Hypothesis- “Mimicking poisonous snakes is an adaptation that protects nonpoisonous snakes from predators.”

  • Theory- “Adaptations such as mimicry evolve by natural selection.”

  • Only become theory with extensive supporting research!


  • Models-

  • Are physical, mental, or mathematical representations of how people understand of process an idea.

    Ex. Drawings, graphs, 3 dimensional objects, computer program.

Science technology and society
Science, Technology, and Society

  • Technology-

  • Apply scientific understanding for some specific purpose.

  • Microscope?

  • Observe microorganisms

  • Stem cell research?

  • Prevent heritable disease