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Teaching in the Target Language can be Done!. Khaled Huthaily, Ed.D. Assistant Professor of Arabic & Educational Linguistics Central and Southwest Asia Program The University of Montana. Brainstorming. What is this presentation about? What is the “problem”? Why is it a “problem”?.

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Teaching in the target language can be done

Teaching in the Target Languagecan be Done!

Khaled Huthaily, Ed.D.

Assistant Professor of Arabic & Educational Linguistics

Central and Southwest Asia Program

The University of Montana


Brainstorming

Brainstorming

  • What is this presentation about?

  • What is the “problem”?

  • Why is it a “problem”?


Research and commonsense

Research and Commonsense

  • Ellis, 1994; Gass, 1997; Turnbull, 2001; Mayfield, 2005; Peng & Zhang, 2009

  • Exposing the students to the target language helps them develop their language skills

  • Amount of target language use was not more than 60% --not enough!

  • Why?


What s happening in the classroom

What’s happening in the classroom?

  • Limited use of the target language in the classroom

  • Teachers’ lack of confidence in using the target language in the classroom

  • The use of “Arabic FusHa,” “Formal Spoken Arabic” or “Colloquial”

  • Students feel that the first language is used for “serious” talks and the target language is just for activities

  • Students ask other students in L1 about the meanings of words

  • What else?


Fluency or accuracy

Fluency or Accuracy?

  • T: Where are you from?

  • S: I from Chongqing.

  • T: No.

  • S: (confused) Oh, I from China.

  • T: No, I AM from Chongqing.

  • S: I am from Chongqing.

  • T: Good, sit down.

    (Peng & Zhang, 2009)


Minimize or avoid l1

Minimize or Avoid L1?

  • Avoid L1 completely:

    • Teacher does not speak the student’s L1; or

    • Students have different L1’s

  • Minimize L1

    • Less use of L1

    • L1 = negative; L2 = positive


How l1 can be useful

How L1 can be useful

  • “the L1 may be used positively by teachers and students” (p. 403)

  • Teachers:

    • Convey meaning

    • Explain grammar

    • Organize the class

  • Students:

    • Collaborative learning

    • Individual strategy use

    • (Vivian Cook, 2001)


Why l2

Why L2?

  • Input – Exposing Students to L2

  • Samples

  • Motivation

  • Evidence of learning

  • Develop listening skills

  • Develop speaking skills

  • Later skills (reading and writing) depend on listening and speaking

  • Communication

  • Etc.


Daily questions

Daily Questions

  • Initiation, Response, Feedback (IRF)

  • Time; Day; Date

  • Current or Recent Events

  • “How are you?”

  • “How is the weather?”

  • Problems with the above examples!


What we can do on day 1

What we can do on day 1

  • Basic Common Phrases/Sentences from Day 1

    • Yes; No

    • Present/Absent

    • Excuse me

    • Thank you

    • How do I say …?

    • What does … mean?

    • Why?

    • Where? Here/There

    • Can you repeat?

    • I (don’t) know.


Some examples

Some Examples

  • REALIA

  • Body Language

  • TA’s Help

  • Taking the register

  • How the weekend was spent

  • Counting students in the class

  • Basic phrases

  • Charts

  • Photos and Images

  • Authentic Materials


Conclusion

Conclusion

Don’t avoid L1, but maximize L2.

Khaled Huthaily, Ed.D.

Assistant Professor of Arabic & Educational Linguistics

Modern and Classical Languages and Literatures

Central and Southwest Asia Program

The University of Montana

khaled.huthaily@umontana.edu


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