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Particle Accelerators and Detectors. World ’ s Largest ‘ Microscopes ’. Contents. What is a Particle Accelerator? An Early Accelerator Modern Linear and Circular Accelerators Particle Detectors Examples of Accelerators and Detectors Accelerators and Detectors as Giant Microscopes.

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Particle accelerators and detectors

Particle Accelerators and Detectors

World’s Largest ‘Microscopes’


Contents
Contents

  • What is a Particle Accelerator?

  • An Early Accelerator

  • Modern Linear and Circular Accelerators

  • Particle Detectors

  • Examples of Accelerators and Detectors

  • Accelerators and Detectors as Giant Microscopes


What is a particle accelerator
What is a Particle Accelerator?

  • Any device that accelerates charged particles to very high speeds using electric and/or magnetic fields

The picture to the right shows an early particle accelerator from 1937. This accelerator was used in the development of the first atomic bomb.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:P3280014.JPG


An early accelerator
An Early Accelerator

  • In 1929, Ernest Lawrence developed the first circular accelerator

  • This cyclotron was only 4 inches in diameter, and contained two D-shaped magnets separated by a small gap

  • An oscillating voltage created an electric field across the small gap, which accelerated the particles as they went around the accelerator


An early accelerator cont
An Early Accelerator, cont.

  • Here is picture of Lawrence’s cyclotron:

http://www.facstaff.bucknell.edu/mvigeant/univ_270_03/Jaime/History.html


Today s accelerators
Today’s Accelerators

  • Modern accelerators fall into two basic categories:

    • Linear Accelerators

    • Circular Accelerators


Linear accelerators
Linear Accelerators

  • In linear accelerators, particles are accelerated in a straight line, often with a target at one to create a collision

  • The size of linear accelerators varies greatly

    • A cathode ray tube is small enough to fit inside of a television

    • Stanford’s linear accelerator is two miles long

http://www.exploratorium.edu/origins/cern/tools/linac.html


Linear accelerator example 1 cathode ray tube
Linear Accelerator – Example 1(Cathode Ray Tube)

  • The cathode ray tube is a linear accelerator found in many TVs, computer monitors, etc.

http://science.howstuffworks.com/atom-smasher2.htm


Linear accelerator example 2 stanford linear accelerator
Linear Accelerator - Example 2(Stanford Linear Accelerator)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:LINAC.jpg


Circular accelerators
Circular Accelerators

  • Circular accelerators propel particles along a circular path using electromagnets until the particles reach desired speeds/energies

  • Particles are accelerated in one direction around the accelerator, while anti-particles are accelerated in the opposite direction

www.fnal.gov


Circular accelerators cont
Circular Accelerators, cont.

  • Circular accelerators are able to bring particles up to very high speeds (energies) by allowing each particle to be accelerated for a longer period of time—around the accelerator.

  • The distance around a circular accelerator can be quite large

    • Fermilab’s Tevatron (Near Chicago, USA) - 4 miles (6.44 km)

    • CERN’s LHC (Near Geneva, Switzerland) –16.8 miles (27 km)


Fermilab accelerators
Fermilab Accelerators

  • The protons and anti-protons at Fermilab go through a series of accelerators in order to accelerate them to 1 TeV (just 200 miles per hour slower than the speed of light)

  • At Fermilab, protons are accelerated in one direction around the ring; anti-protons are accelerated in the opposite direction

  • The series of accelerators at Fermilab is illustrated by an animation located at this website (be sure to press “play”):http://www-bd.fnal.gov/public/index.html


Collisions
Collisions

  • The particle and anti-particle beams are focused and directed at particular sites around the ring in order to collide with one another

  • These collisions are designed to occur within detectors, which are able to analyze the many events (particles created, etc.) that result from the collisions of the particles and anti-particles


Particle detectors
Particle Detectors

  • The large detectors are able to trace and characterize the particles that result from the collisions

  • The picture to the right shows the 5,000-ton CDF Collider Detector at Fermilab

  • 400,000 proton-antiproton collisions occur each second in this detector

http://www.fnal.gov/pub/about/tour/index.html


Particle detectors cont
Particle Detectors, cont.

  • By analyzing the nature and type of particles resulting from the collisions, scientists are able to learn much about matter at a more fundamental level

http://www.fnal.gov/pub/now/live_events/index.html


Cern accelerators and detectors
CERN Accelerators and Detectors

  • The diagram to the right shows the accelerators and detectors at CERN near Geneva, Switzerland

  • The LHC is the largest circular accelerator at CERN and is to begin operation in 2007

  • CMS and ATLAS are two of the five examples of detectors approved at CERN for the LHC


Fermilab accelerators and detectors
Fermilab Accelerators and Detectors

  • The most powerful accelerator (the Tevatron) in the US is at Fermilab

  • The diagram to the right shows the series of accelerators (including the Main Injector and Tevatron) and detectors (including CDF and DZERO) at Fermilab

http://www.fnal.gov/pub/about/whatis/picturebook/descriptions/00_635.html


Accelerators and detectors as giant microscopes
Accelerators and Detectors as Giant Microscopes

  • Together, particle accelerators and detectors have helped scientists discover very small building blocks of matter

  • For instance, scientists now think that protons within atoms are made up of even smaller particles known as quarks

  • Check out www.particleadventure.org for more information

http://www2.slac.stanford.edu/vvc/theory/fundamental.html


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