Slide1 l.jpg
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 27

Peter R. LaPine, Ph.D. Department of Audiology and Speech Sciences Michigan State University PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 87 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Peter R. LaPine, Ph.D. Department of Audiology and Speech Sciences Michigan State University. The “Plan”. RELAX!!! Be comfortable Ask questions Get answers Go home with new information Take with you material that you can use. Common Terms. Voice Disorder Hyperfunction Hypofunction

Download Presentation

Peter R. LaPine, Ph.D. Department of Audiology and Speech Sciences Michigan State University

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Slide1 l.jpg

Peter R. LaPine, Ph.D.

Department of Audiology

and

Speech Sciences

Michigan State University


The plan l.jpg

The “Plan”

  • RELAX!!!

  • Be comfortable

  • Ask questions

  • Get answers

  • Go home with new information

  • Take with you material that you can use


Common terms l.jpg

Common Terms

  • Voice Disorder

  • Hyperfunction

  • Hypofunction

  • Aphonia

  • Dysphonia

  • Laryngeal Pathology

  • Vocal Pathology :{ )


Speech dynamics l.jpg

Speech Dynamics

  • Speech on exhalation from lungs

  • Activates the vocal folds

  • Voiced sound (phonation) passes through the pharynx and oral cavity

  • Articulators modulate


Prosection of the larynx l.jpg

Prosection of the Larynx

  • 9 cartilages; 1 bone

  • 5 intrinsic laryngeal muscles to regulate mass, length and tension of the vocal fold

  • It is a VALVE; it’s binary


Slide8 l.jpg

  • TVF = true vocal fold

  • FVF = false vocal fold

  • Trachea = “windpipe”


Coronal section of the larynx l.jpg

Coronal Section of the Larynx

  • TVF and FVF

  • TVF shape and histology


Valve functions of the larynx l.jpg

Valve Functions of the Larynx

  • Abduct: Posterior cricoarytenoid m.

  • Adduct: Lateral Cricoarytenoid m. (and the Transverse and Oblique Arytenoid muscles.

  • “Open” at rest


Vocal fold activity l.jpg

Vocal Fold Activity

  • Closed-Open-Closed

  • Medial Compression

  • Vocal “cord”, ligament and fold

  • Frequency, Amplitude and Waveform

  • Perturbation values: jitter and shimmer


Slide12 l.jpg

  • 1 cycle of vocal fold vibration

  • “closed-open-closed”

  • Aerodynamic process

  • Myoelastic process

  • Frequency perceived as “pitch”


Vocal fold movement l.jpg

Vocal Fold Movement

  • Closed-Open-Closed

  • Stroboscopic view

  • Medial compression

  • Male Frequency Range: 118-150 Hz

  • Female Frequency Range: 180-240 Hz


Speech is a motor act l.jpg

Speech is a MOTOR act

  • Nerves activate and fire

  • Muscles are “moved” by the nerve impulse

  • Cranial nerves that control speech: Trigeminal, Facial, Hypoglossal, Vagus, and Accessory


Recurrent laryngeal nerve l.jpg

Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve

  • Asymmetrical branch of CX

  • “Feeds” the intrinsic laryngeal muscles

    • PCA

    • LCA

    • OA/TA

    • TA


Nerve damage l.jpg

Nerve Damage

  • CX: The Vagus

  • Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve

  • Image of unilateral cord paralysis

  • Dec’d pitch

  • Respiration for speech is inefficient


Medications l.jpg

Medications

  • Coordination and proprioception (stimulants, sedatives,nervousness, tremors, pain masking)

  • Airflow (bronchodilators, constrictors, nervousness, tremor)

  • Fluid balance (decongestants,---”rebound effect”--edema, sedating, decreased energy


Medications cont l.jpg

Medications, cont.

  • URT secretions--(antihistamines, dryness, sedation)

  • Hormonal (androgens, increasing vocal mass)

  • Gastrointestinal Reflux Disorder: GERD---OTC medications, diet.


Laryngeal pathology l.jpg

Laryngeal Pathology

  • An ANATOMICAL CHANGE in the size, structure or shape of the larynx

  • A pathology is a deviation in the normal structure caused by disease or other systemic variation


Benign lesions l.jpg

Benign Lesions

  • Vocal Nodules

  • Vocal Polyps:SessilePeducunlated

  • Contact Ulcers

  • Granuloma

  • Papilloma


Added mass l.jpg

Added Mass

  • Top view: vocal nodules (bilateral)

  • Bottom view: vocal polyp (sessile)


Swelling l.jpg

Swelling

  • Reinke’s Edema

  • Increased mass, decreased pitch (frequency)

  • Atypical perturbation values


Plicae ventricularis l.jpg

Plicae Ventricularis

  • False vocal fold vibration

  • Decreased pitch and decreased frequency (< 90 Hz)

  • Limited Pitch e.g., “Monopitch”


Bowed vocal cords l.jpg

“Bowed Vocal Cords”

  • Chronic Laryngitis

  • Presbylaryngis

  • Fatigue/Overuse

  • Symptoms:

    • decreased intensity

    • decreased respiratory control

    • decreased pitch range


Granuloma l.jpg

Granuloma

  • Associated with physical irritation; abrasion of the mucous cover of the vocal fold

  • Adds mass: decreases pitch (frequency), increases perturbation values


Intracordal cyst l.jpg

Intracordal cyst

  • Note left side of body (slide right!)

  • Added mass

  • Incomplete medial compression of true vocal fold

  • Result: increased mass and air escape


  • Login