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Aerospace Planes: A New Technical Arena for the Homebuilder. EAA Oshkosh Airventure '99 John A. Bossard. What Happened to Aerospace Development?. Aviation Saw Continuous Increases in Speed and Altitudes until WWII

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Aerospace planes a new technical arena for the homebuilder

Aerospace Planes: A New Technical Arena for the Homebuilder

EAA Oshkosh Airventure '99

John A. Bossard


What happened to aerospace development
What Happened to Aerospace Development?

  • Aviation Saw Continuous Increases in Speed and Altitudes until WWII

  • Natural Evolution of Aerospace Planes for Orbital Travel was curtailed by the Space Race

  • Significant Consequences of the Aerospace Development Path are:

    • Space Travel has left the Average Person Behind

    • Manned Spaceflight remains exceedingly limited

    • If we want to get into space, we’ll have to do it ourselves


Aerospace development path characterized by discontinuous changes
Aerospace Development Path Characterized by Discontinuous Changes

Aerospace

Homebuilt Aerospace Planes

Military Aviation

General/Commercial Aviation


Homebuilt aerospace planes a new path for aerospace development
Homebuilt Aerospace Planes:A New Path for Aerospace Development

  • Homebuilt Aerospace Planes are Achievable

  • Aerospace Planes = Airplanes + Rocket Engines

  • Homebuilt Aerospace Plane Development Synopsis


Homebuilt aerospace planes are achievable
Homebuilt Aerospace Planes are Achievable

  • Homebuilt Aerospace Planes are not Impossible

    • They should be considered as merely another aerospace design optimization problem

    • High Speed Aerospace Planes have already been flown

    • Manned Orbital Space Transportation has already been achieved

  • A Huge Data base for Aerospace Planes Already Exists

    • Aerothermodynamics

    • Materials

    • Atmospheric Properties

    • Fast Information Retrieval Methods


Aerospace planes airplanes rocket engines
Aerospace Planes = Airplanes + Rocket Engines

  • Synergize Vast Experience Among Builders:

    • Aircraft builders and Rocket Builders

    • Merging the efforts of these two talent pools is a powerful approach to building aerospace planes

  • Extending the Performance of Aircraft seems a more sensible approach than man-rating artillery rockets

  • Utilize Vast Array of Existing “Know-How”

    • EAA has been a continuous source of aviation advances

    • ARS et.al. has been a continuous source of rocketry advances


Rocket propulsion for the homebuilt aerospace plane
Rocket Propulsion for the Homebuilt Aerospace Plane

  • Solid Rocket Motors

  • Liquid Rocket Engines

  • Hybrid Rocket Motors

  • Combined-Cycle Engines


Liquid rocket engines
Liquid Rocket Engines

Fuel

Oxidizer

Pressurant

Gas

LOx/RP-1 Engine Test, 12,000 lbf Thrust

Photo courtesy of Space America, Inc.

http://www.spaceamerica.com/


Hybrid rocket engines
Hybrid Rocket Engines

Oxidizer

Pressurant

Gas

N20/HTTP Hybrid Engine Test, 1300 lbf thrust

Photo courtesy of HARC


Combined cycle engines
Combined-Cycle Engines

The Air Turbo Rocket

  • High Thrust-to-Weight, Specific Thrust, and Isp

  • Zero to Mach 5-6 Operating Range

  • Simple

  • Integrates with Rocket Systems

Nozzle

Gas generator

Combustor

Compressor

Turbine


Propulsion options available to the homebuilder
Propulsion Options Available to the Homebuilder

Acceptable with

Further Development

Key

Good

Poor


Development synopsis for the homebuilt aerospace plane
Development Synopsis for the Homebuilt Aerospace Plane

  • Design Principles

  • Characteristics

  • Significant Design Considerations

  • Building and Operating Costs

  • Example Vehicles


Design principles for homebuilt aerospace planes kis 3 s
Design Principles for Homebuilt Aerospace Planes(KIS3S)

  • Think Small

  • Keep it Simple

  • Design for Safety


Aerospace planes have a wider range of characteristics relative to general aviation planes
Aerospace Planes have a wider Range of Characteristics relative to General Aviation Planes

  • Aerodynamics Characterized by:

    • Compressible Flow

    • Real Gas Effects

    • Slip Flow (high Altitudes and Speeds)

  • High Propellant Fractions

  • Rocket Propulsion

  • Additional Systems:

    • Reaction Control

    • Life Support


What are the significant design considerations
What Are the Significant Design Considerations? relative to General Aviation Planes

  • How to You Achieve Sufficiently High Propellant Mass Fractions?

  • Aero-thermodynamic Properties:

    • Vehicle Aerodynamics

    • Material Compatibilities

    • The “Up” Problems ( Burn Up, Blow Up, Break Up -> Toes Up)

  • Human Factors

  • Unknown Problems


Homebuilt aerospace plane costs

Materials relative to General Aviation Planes

structure

TPS

Rocket Engine

Systems

Propellant tankage

Controls

Life Support

Navigation/Comm.

Propellants

Operating Expenses

Maintenance

Fees and Licensing

Homebuilt Aerospace Plane Costs

Non-Recurring Costs

Recurring Costs


Homebuilt aerospace plane costs1
Homebuilt Aerospace Plane Costs relative to General Aviation Planes

  • 2-person, sub-orbital vehicle

  • 7000 lbm GLOW, 5000 lbm propellant, delta V=5000 ft/sec

  • Materials Structure $ 100,000

  • Thermal Protection $ 40,000

  • System Rocket Engine $ 250,000

  • Propellant Tankage $ 150,000

  • Pressurant System $ 90,000

  • Reaction Control System $ 65,000

  • Life Support $ 50,000

  • Comm./Nav. $ 50,000

  • on-board elec. Power $ 30,000

  • Other Instrumentation $ 20,000

  • Landing Gear $ 5,000

  • Total Cost (dry vehicle) $ 850,000

  • Propellants (per flight)

  • 3500 lbm Lox $ 700

  • 1500 lbm RP-1 $ 400

Less than

$1,000,000


Representative homebuilt aerospace plane
Representative Homebuilt Aerospace Plane relative to General Aviation Planes

Reaction Control System

Rocket Engine

Pressurant gas

Thermal Protection

Control Surfaces (Wings and Empenage)

Crew/Recovery Compartment

Propellant Tankage

Life support


Rocket powered ercoupe
Rocket-Powered Ercoupe relative to General Aviation Planes

  • First Rocket-Powered Airplane test by U.S. Military; Aug. 12th, 1941

  • 6 solid propellant rocket motors; 3 under each wing

  • operated with and without prop thrust

  • subsonic

Photo courtesy Ercoupe Web site:

http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Hangar/3651/cfacts/jato.htm


Bell x 1
Bell X-1 relative to General Aviation Planes

  • Lox/Alcohol Rocket motor

  • 2000 lbf thrust

  • 1200 lbm onboard propellant

  • supersonic

Photo courtesy of the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Photo Gallery


Tgs kitten cerulean freight forwarding company
tgs Kitten relative to General Aviation PlanesCerulean Freight Forwarding Company

  • 3-place Rocket-Powered Vehicle

  • 3 x 4880 lbf Liquid Rocket Motors; LOx and CH4 or C3H8

  • 7000 lbm Gross Lift-off Weight (GLOW)

  • 4600 lbm Propellants

  • Sub-Orbital

Image courtesy Cerulean Freight Forwarding Co.

http://www.nvinet.com/%7Ecffc/page2.htm


Homebuilt aerospace plane development roadmap
Homebuilt Aerospace Plane relative to General Aviation PlanesDevelopment Roadmap

2000

2020

Airframe Development

TSTO Launch Aircraft

Hypersonic/Sub-Orbital Airframe

Orbital/Re-entry Airframe

1st Custom Airframe

Orbital Flight

X-Prize

B-Prize

1st Homebuilt Aerospace Plane

Orbital Aerospace Plane

2nd Gen. Aerospace Plane

Existing Rocket Engines

Custom Rocket Engine

Next Generation Propulsion

Rocket Development


Challenges to the aerospace plane homebuilder
Challenges to the Aerospace Plane Homebuilder relative to General Aviation Planes

  • Building and Operating Costs will be significantly higher than for General Aviation Aircraft

  • Integrating into the Existing Regulatory System will require perseverance and fortitude

  • Builders will be told repeatedly: “You can’t do it”


Motivations for building aerospace planes
Motivations for Building Aerospace Planes relative to General Aviation Planes

  • Fun

  • Freedom

  • Wealth

  • Adventure

  • Challenge

“For those who understand, no explanation is necessary;

For those who do not understand, no explanation is possible”


Conclusions
Conclusions relative to General Aviation Planes

  • Homebuilt Aerospace Planes are Achievable

  • Synergy of Rocket and Aircraft Builders will make Homebuilt Aerospace Planes Possible

  • Aerospace Plane Designs Lie within the Realm of Existing Knowledge


Acknowledgements
acknowledgements relative to General Aviation Planes

  • LOx/RP-1 Engine Testing Video footage: Space America, Inc. http://www.spaceamerica.com/

  • Kitten Image and data: Cerulean Freight Forwarding Co. http://www.nvinet.com/%7Ecffc/page2.htm

  • Hybrid Engine Testing Video Footage: High Altitude Research Corp. (256)-683-7864

  • Air Turbo Rocket Testing Video Footage: Dr. Jay Lilley U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command


The vision for homebuilt aerospace planes
The Vision for Homebuilt Aerospace Planes relative to General Aviation Planes

  • We can build Aerospace Planes if We Want to

  • We are at the dawn of the Age of the Personal Aerospace Plane

  • Homebuilt Aerospace Planes will open up the Space Frontier for the rest of us


"....For I dipt into the future, far as human eye could see, relative to General Aviation PlanesSaw the Vision of the World, and all the wonder that would be;Saw the heavens fill with commerce, argosies of magic sails,Pilots of the purple twilight, dropping down with costly bales;..."-Alfred, Lord Tennyson-


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