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The Learning Cycle. Applications of Cognitive Science to Engineering Education And the Manufacturing Learning Module. Purpose of Presentation. Present information on the research basis for Learning Cycle Approaches How the Engineering Learning Cycle was developed

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The learning cycle

The Learning Cycle

Applications of Cognitive Science to Engineering Education

And the

Manufacturing Learning

Module


Purpose of presentation
Purpose of Presentation

  • Present information on the research basis for Learning Cycle Approaches

  • How the Engineering Learning Cycle was developed

  • Experience of using the Learning Cycle for engineering and technology


Part of the problem
Part of the Problem

  • “As more and more information is generated, specialists and technicians find that the information they possess becomes more quickly out dated.” (Brown, A., 1995, p.2)


The coach student model
The Coach-Student Model

  • …A college’s purpose is not to transfer knowledge but to create environments and experiences that bring students to discover and construct knowledge themselves…” (Barr and Tagg, 1995, p. 15)

  • Move from Lecturer - Student to Coach - Student Model

  • Sage-on-the-stage to Guide-on-the side


  • “You cannot teach anybody anything. All you can do as a teacher is to make it easier for your students to learn.” (Redish, 1994, p. 798)

  • “…the cognitive view requires a stimulating learning environment in which students are active participants in planning, implementing, and evaluating teaching and learning.” (Johnson and Thomas, 1994, p. 39-40)


Strategies for application of cognitive studies to curriculum design

1. Reduce memory load. teacher is to make it easier for your students to learn.”

2. Activate existing knowledge structures.

3. Representation of new knowledge techniques.

4. Encourage “deep thinking”.

5. Enhance cognitive control processes.

6. Support the use and transfer of knowledge and skills.

Strategies for Application of Cognitive Studies to Curriculum Design

(Johnson and Thomas, 1994)


Constructivist approach
Constructivist Approach teacher is to make it easier for your students to learn.”

  • The student must build their own mental model

  • Telling will not change a student’s model

  • Need well developed basic concepts


Principles of teacher is to make it easier for your students to learn.”Cognitive Studies

  • 1. Organize into mental models

  • 2. It is easy to learn what matches our mental model

  • 3. It is hard to change our existing model

  • 4. Every student has a different model for the same information (Redish, 1994)


Touchstone problem
Touchstone Problem teacher is to make it easier for your students to learn.”

  • An important strategy is the touchstone problem. This is a problem so well understood it becomes part of the students mental model...to which they can return


Basic features of adult education
Basic Features of teacher is to make it easier for your students to learn.”Adult Education

  • 1. Related to work

  • 2. Includes prior training

  • 3. Immediate feedback through hands-on activities (Knowles, 1984)


Adult studies
Adult Studies teacher is to make it easier for your students to learn.”

  • 1. Job related

  • 2. Best if done On-the-job

  • 3. Must have easy to use interface

  • 4. Must feel in control of pace and content (Shaw, 1992)


Don’t Re-invent the Wheel! teacher is to make it easier for your students to learn.”

The science community has used learning cycles for many years.

Two major projects:

Compass - from Illinois Central College

Introductory College Physics for the 21st Century - Seminole Community College, FL


The physics learning cycle
The Physics Learning Cycle teacher is to make it easier for your students to learn.”


Key concepts
KEY CONCEPTS teacher is to make it easier for your students to learn.”

Goals of the Manufacturing Learning Modules

Move from Concrete to Formal Piaget Levels of Learning

Classification

Quantification

Synthesis


Critical parts of learning cycle
Critical Parts of Learning Cycle teacher is to make it easier for your students to learn.”

  • Exploration - new concepts should be introduced with minimum explanation and allow students to “construct” basic concepts

  • Dialog - present theory, standard terminology, and ideas in relation to what students have done in the exploration. The dialog can extend the basic concepts to the more complex leading to either an application or another exploration.


Critical parts of learning cycle1
Critical Parts of Learning Cycle teacher is to make it easier for your students to learn.”

  • Application - This section of the cycle presents a problem typical of an industrial situation for the student to solve.

  • This three part cycle is simpler than the Science cycle while retaining the key features.


The engineering learning cycle

The Engineering Learning Cycle teacher is to make it easier for your students to learn.”

Application

Exploration

Dialog


Examples of use
Examples of use teacher is to make it easier for your students to learn.”

  • Engineering Materials- Hardness unit starts with Mhos scale and classification and evolves to Rockwell scale.

  • PLC Module - develops concept of N.O and N.C. switches and evolves to the XIC and XIO commands of PLC ladder logic.

  • The exploration is the most difficult part of the module!


The engineering learning cycle1

The Engineering Learning Cycle teacher is to make it easier for your students to learn.”

Application

Exploration

Dialog


References
References teacher is to make it easier for your students to learn.”

Barr, R. & Tagg, J. (1995, November, December) From teaching to learning: A new paradigm for undergraduate education. Change, 13-25.

Brown, A. (1995, April/May). Human factors: The problems of integrating people and technology in the workplace. On the Horizon, 3(4), pp. 1-2, 5-6.

Johnson, S.D. & Thomas, R.G. (1994, Winter/Spring). Implications of cognitive science for instructional design in technology education. The Journal of Technical Studies, 20(1), 33-45.

Knowles, M.S. & Associates (1984). Androgogy in action. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Redish, E.F. (1994, September). Implications of Cognitive Studies for teaching physics. American Journal of Physics, 62, (9) 796-803.

Shaw, D.S. (1992, Spring). Computer aided instruction for adult professionals. Journal of Computer Based Instruction, 19(2), 54-57.


For additional information
For additional information: teacher is to make it easier for your students to learn.”

  • Dr. Pearley Cunningham CCAC 1750 Clairton Road West Mifflin, PA 15122

  • Phone (412) 469-6299

  • email: pcunningham@ccac.edu or plc@drcunningham.us


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