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Politics of Racial & Social Change. Three Groupings in United States Cities. Roots of Racial Segregation in the Cities. Exodus from the rural south to urban ghettos After World War I: a trickle After World War II: mass migration Informal covenants kept African Americans in ghettos

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Politics of racial social change

Politics of Racial & Social Change

Three Groupings in United States Cities

Roots of racial segregation in the cities
Roots of Racial Segregation in the Cities

  • Exodus from the rural south to urban ghettos

    • After World War I: a trickle

    • After World War II: mass migration

  • Informal covenants kept African Americans in ghettos

  • Even more extensive in southern cities

African american mobilization for change
African American Mobilization for Change

  • Booker T. Washington as spokesman for individualistic integration

  • NAACP – first national African American advocacy group

  • Civil Rights Movement & African American Establishment

    • Returning veterans from World War II

    • SCLC and Martin Luther King Jr.

    • African Urban Churches

Anger and political mobilization
Anger and political mobilization

Martin Luther King: “I have a dream”

Huey P. Newton & Bobby Seale

Nation of islam
Nation of Islam

Elijah Muhammad

Established Muslim Temple in Detroit (1934)

Complete separation from white society

Louis Farrakan: current leader

Alternatives to the african american establishment malcolm x
Alternatives to the African-American Establishment: Malcolm X

  • Began as a collaborator of Elijah Muhammad

  • Mission to the urban poor

  • Radical anti-white perspective that modified toward the end

  • Assassinated – 1965

More riots in american cities
More Riots in American Cities

  • Trajectory of Riots/Urban Violence

    • Cleveland 1966

    • Newark 1967

    • Detroit 1967

    • Washington, D.C. 1968

    • Los Angeles again 1992

    • Cincinnati 2001

Watts los angeles riots august 1965
Watts (Los Angeles) Riots August – 1965

  • Triggered by arrest for drunk driving by California patrol

  • People gathered and resentment toward police boiled over

  • Anger over repeal of fair housing act

  • $35 million in property damage – mostly in African-American areas

  • 34 people killed

  • 1032 injured

African americans and voting rights
African Americans and Voting Rights

  • 1965 Voting Rights Act

    • Federal government could appoint voting examiners who could register people

    • Suspended literacy tests

    • Justice Department must approve changes voting laws and voter qualifications

    • Attorney General has authority to enforce provisions of the act

African americans and voting
African Americans and Voting

  • Controversy Surrounding “at large” elections

  • Courts and at large elections

    • Rejected attempts to move from ward to at large elections

    • Hasn’t struck down existing at large systems

    • When changes requested federal government has forced cities to guarantee representation to minorities

Redistricting minority voting rights recent decisions
Redistricting & Minority Voting Rights: Recent Decisions

  • Nature of redistricting

  • How much minority population should a minority district have?

  • 65% majority rule of thumb

Road to african american political incorporation remains unclear
Road to African-American Political Incorporation Remains Unclear

  • Levels of political incorporation

    • Weak mobilization and exclusion

    • Protest and exclusion (Oakland before 1977)

    • Weak mobilization and incorporation (San Francisco during 1970’s)

    • Biracial electoral alliance and strong incorporation (Berkeley)

African american mayors pioneers and part of the establishment
African American Mayors: Pioneers and part of the establishment

Mayor Tom Bradley of Los Angeles, 1973-1993

Incorporation in 21 st century
Incorporation in 21 establishment st Century

  • Expands public sector opportunities for minorities

  • African American Mayors (strategies of responsiveness)

    • Private sector investment in areas where there are large numbers of African-Americans

    • Aggressive affirmative action in competition for public sector jobs in the cities

Hispanics overview
Hispanics (Overview) establishment

Current status
Current Status establishment

Hispanics constitute the largest minority group in the United States

Hispanics account for 41.3 million people in the US

14.3 % of the US population is of Hispanic origin

Growth rate for Hispanics is 3.6 % compared to 1.0 % overall population growth

Current status1
Current Status establishment

  • Hispanic population in each region:

    • Northeast – 9.8 %

    • Midwest – 4.9 %

    • South – 11.6 %

    • West – 24.3 %

  • Top Three States:

    • New Mexico – 42.1 %

    • California – 32.4 %

    • Texas – 32 %

Voter turnout
Voter Turnout establishment

  • 2006:

    • 73 % voted Democrat

    • 26% voted Republican

  • 2004:

    • 55 % voted Democrat

    • 42% voted Republican

Political diversity
Political Diversity establishment

  • Cubans and Colombians tend to favor conservative political ideologies and support the Republicans

  • Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Dominicans lean more towards the Democrats

  • Mexicans make up approximately 63% of all Hispanics in the US while Cubans only constitute 4%. Dominicans and Puerto Ricans make up another 13%.

  • Note that the location of the Hispanic population also influences party affiliation.

    • California Latinos voted 63-32 for John Kerry in 2004

    • Arizona and New Mexico Latinos by a smaller 56-43 margin

    • Texas Latinos were split nearly evenly

    • Florida Latinos (mostly being Cuban American) backed President Bush by a 54-45 margin.

2006 midterm election
2006 Midterm Election establishment

  • Hispanics voted overwhelmingly Democrat, with a lopsided 69-30 margin. For the first time Florida Latinos were split evenly.

  • The key element leading to this voting behavior

    was the heated immigration debate and H.R. 4437 (The Border

    Protection, Anti-terrorism, and Illegal Immigration

    Control Act of 2005).

    - H.R. 4437 passed the House by a vote of 239 to

    182, with 92% of Republicans supporting, 82%

    of Democrats opposing.

Religious diversity
Religious diversity establishment

  • 70% are Roman Catholic

  • 23% are Protestant, 85% of which are

    Evangelical or Pentecostal.

  • Less than 1% are Jewish.

    • Most are descendants of

      Ashkenazi Jews who migrated from

      Europe particularly to Argentina.

  • Less than 1% are Muslims.

MEXICANS establishment

Mexico history
Mexico - History establishment

  • Pre-Colonization: Southwest inhabited by Native Americans and Spanish

  • 1810: Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla – Mexican Independence

  • 1821: Mexico opens borders to United States

    • Trade regions

    • Hunting

    • Settlement

Mexico history1
Mexico - History establishment

  • Highly unstable government

  • U.S.-Mexico War: 1846

  • Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo: 1848

    • $15 million for the northern third of Mexico

    • Recognized prior land grants in the Southwest

    • Offered citizenship to any Mexicans residing in the area

  • 1845-1854: the United States acquires half of Mexico

Mexicans immigration trends
Mexicans – Immigration Trends establishment

  • 1848: <15,000 Mexican Americans (outside of New Mexico)

  • 1890: 75,000+ Mexicans had migrated to the United States.

  • 1900: Mexicans (immigrants and native-born) totaled between 381,000 and 562,000

  • Cycles of mass immigration from Mexico followed by efforts at deportation and voluntary departure

Mexicans labor force
Mexicans – Labor Force establishment

  • Correlation between the need for labor and the increase/decrease of Mexican immigrants

Mexicans current status
Mexicans – Current Status establishment

  • Make up 64% of the Hispanic population in the United States.

  • Cities with high Mexican population:

    • Chicago (IL)

    • Houston (TX)

    • Los Angeles (CA)

  • Median Income of Mexican-American families (2000): $27,600

Mexicans political mobilization
Mexicans – Political Mobilization establishment

  • The Catholic Church

  • Unions

    • Industrial Workers of the World

    • United Mine Workers of America

    • United Farm Workers

  • Democratic Party

  • Republican Party

Mexicans political lssues
Mexicans - Political lssues establishment

Making undocumented immigrants legal

Defense of immigrant workers’ rights.

Case of san antonio
Case of San Antonio establishment

  • Growing numbers of Mexican Americans in 1960s/1970s

  • Annexation in 1975

    • Diluted Mexican American voting strength

    • Council seat districts created to insure representation to African Americans and Mexican Americans

    • Broad coalition elects Henry Cisneros

CUBANS establishment

Cuba history
Cuba – History establishment

Former Spanish Colony

Independence movement – Ten Years’ War (1868)

Short truce, then Spanish American War (1898)

U.S. granted Cuba independence with certain guidelines (1902)

Fall of the Cuban Republic government and U.S. relations – Depression, Batista, Mafia (1902-1959)

Rise of Fidel Castro and the fall of U.S. investments. (1959)

Cubans recent immigration
Cubans – Recent Immigration establishment

  • 1st Wave (1960-1980):

    • Followed Castro’s Cuban Revolution

    • Hundreds of thousands, upper/middle classes

  • 2nd Wave (1980s):

    • Followed economic downturn

    • Est. 120,000 – some from jails/mental asylums

    • Mariel Boatlift Crisis – disliked by Cuban Americans

  • 3rd Wave (1994):

    • Followed political turmoil

    • Est. 35,000 during summer months

    • Aug. 23: 3,253 intercepted by Coast Guard

    • Balsero Rafter Crisis

Cubans location
Cubans - Location establishment

  • Largest populations of Cuban Americans

    • Miami, FL

    • Hialeah, FL

    • Union City, NJ

    • New York, NY

    • Key West, FL

    • Tampa, FL

Cubans location1
Cubans - Location establishment

  • Transformed Miami into a distinct modern city

  • Outside of Miami, have assimilated into American Culture

  • States with high Cuban population growth:

    • California

    • Georgia

    • Illinois

    • North Carolina

    • Virginia

Cubans population
Cubans - Population establishment

  • 1.5 million Cuban Americans

  • 4 % of US Hispanic population

  • Compared to overall Hispanic population

    • Older

    • More educated

    • More wealthy

Cuban urban politics
Cuban Urban Politics establishment

  • Felt most markedly in city of Miami

    • Cubans a slight majority of population

  • Anti-communism and conservatism more important than in other Hispanic-American communities

  • Tensions in African-American - Cuban relations in Miami

  • Corruption & electoral fraud led voters to approve (1997) a strong mayor system

Puerto Ricans establishment

Puerto rico today
Puerto Rico - Today establishment

  • Pop. of 3.95 million living on the island

  • Puerto Ricans have US citizenship, currency, and defense

  • Can’t vote in presidential elections

  • Spanish and English are the official languages

  • Racial breakdown

    • Spanish (European)

    • Taino (Amerindian)

    • Africans

Puerto ricans migration
Puerto Ricans - Migration establishment

  • Peak period of migration came after World War II.

    • During the 1940s, the population grew from 70,000 to 226,000.

  • By 1970

    • 810,000 Puerto Rican migrants and another 581,000 mainland-born Puerto Ricans lived in the United States.

Puerto ricans migration1
Puerto Ricans - Migration establishment

Currently there are 3.4 million Puerto Ricans living on the U.S. mainland

Puerto Ricans are the second largest Latino group in the United States

Puerto ricans status
Puerto Ricans- Status establishment

  • Employment

    • In 2003, 20.7% were in professional-managerial occupations, 33.7 percent were in service-sales jobs.

  • Poverty

    • 22.8 % for families

  • Education

    • Of those 25 years and older, 63.2 % have graduated from high school

    • 9.9% have 4 yr. college degree

BRAZIL establishment

Brazil today
Brazil – Today establishment

  • Largest and most populous country in South America

  • Only Portuguese speaking country in the Americas

  • Multiracial

  • Largest Roman Catholic population in the world

  • Largest protestant population in Latin America

Brazilians immigration
Brazilians - Immigration establishment

  • 87 % of Brazilians in US born in Brazil

  • 70% of Brazilians in US are illegal

  • Why Immigrate?

    • More than ½ have friends or relatives already in US

    • ¼ Permanently Immigrate

Brazilians immigration1
Brazilians - Immigration establishment

  • Largest Brazilian Settlements on East Coast

  • By Population

    • Boston: 150,000

    • New York: 80,000-150,000

    • Florida: 65000

    • California: 20,000

    • Houston: 10,000

    • Washington D.C.: 10,000

Asian americans
Asian Americans establishment

Chinese first large scale asian migration to the united states
Chinese: First Large Scale Asian Migration to the United States

  • Central Pacific working from Sacramento toward Nebraska

  • 9,000 – 12,000 Chinese worked for Central Pacific

  • Paid only 60% of wages received by European immigrants

  • 3,336,966(1.2% of the US population)

Japanese americans
Japanese-Americans States

  • First wave of Japanese immigrants to provide agricultural labor

    • Hawaii sugarcane and pineapple plantations,

    • California fruit and produce farms

  • 1924 United States Immigration Act banned immigration from Japan (Yellow Peril)

  • Japanese Americans placed in internment camps during Second World War

  • President Regan and Congress apologize for internment

  • Current number of Japanese-Americans 1.2million (0.4% population)

  • Filipino americans
    Filipino Americans States

    • Battle of Manila Bay

    • U.S. colonialism (1898 – 1946)

    • Second largest source of immigrants in some years of 1990’s

    • 2.2 million in the USA

    Indian americans
    Indian-Americans States

    • 1943 Republican Clara Booth Luce and Democrat Emanuel Celler introduce a bill to open naturalization to Indian immigrants to the US.

    • Immigrants from India are generally well educated and high achieving

    • 2,479,4240.9% of US population

    SubrahmanyanChandrasekhar (shown above) and Har Gobind Khorana are the 2 Indian Americans to have won the Nobel Prize

    Vietnamese americans
    Vietnamese Americans States

    • 1,418,3340.5% of the US population

    • Concentrated in: California, Texas, Washington, Virginia

    • Disproportionately large number of Vietnamese-Americans are Christians

    South Vietnamese civilians scramble to board a

    US helicopter during the American evacuation of


    Issues of concern to asian americans
    Issues of Concern to Asian-Americans States

    • Immigration

    • Bilingualism

    • Jobs