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Review Topic for Final. Chapter 1. Five components of a computer Input Device Output Device System Unit Storage Device Communications Device Advantages of using computers Speed Reliability Consistency Storage Communications. Chapter 1. Disadvantages of using computers Health Risks

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chapter 1
Chapter 1
  • Five components of a computer
    • Input Device
    • Output Device
    • System Unit
    • Storage Device
    • Communications Device
  • Advantages of using computers
    • Speed
    • Reliability
    • Consistency
    • Storage
    • Communications
chapter 11
Chapter 1
  • Disadvantages of using computers
    • Health Risks
    • Violation of Privacy
    • Public Safety
    • Impact on Labor Force
    • Impact on Environment
  • What is Green computing?
  • Software (Program)
    • System Software
      • Operating System
      • Utility Program
    • Application Software
chapter 12
Chapter 1
  • Seven categories of computers
    • Personal computers
    • Mobile computers and mobile devices
    • Game consoles
    • Servers
    • Mainframes
    • Supercomputers
    • Embedded computers
  • Elements of an Information System
    • Hardware, Software, Data, People, Procedures
chapter 2
Chapter 2
  • What is internet addresses?
    • IP address  72.14.207.99
    • Domain name  www.au.edu
  • The World Wide Web (WWW) or Web
    • A Web site contains related web pages
  • A Web browser used to access and view Web pages
    • Internet Explorer, Firefox, Google Chrome, Safari, Opera
  • A URL or Web address
    • http://www.au.edu
chapter 21
Chapter 2
  • Many different types of Web sites are
    • Portal, News, Informational, Business/Marketing, Blog, Wiki, Online Social Network, Educational, Entertainment, Advocacy, Web Application
  • Multimedia on the Web
    • Graphics, Animation, Audio, Video
  • Five major steps in Web publishing
    • Plan a Web site
    • Analyze and design a Web site
    • Create a Web site
    • Deploy a Web site
    • Maintain a Web site
chapter 22
Chapter 2
  • Three types of e-commerce
    • Business-to-consumer (B2C)
    • Consumer-to-consumer (C2C)
    • Business-to-business (B2B)
  • Other Internet Services
    • E-mail
    • Mailing Lists
    • Instant Messaging
    • Chat Rooms
    • VoIP
    • Newsgroups and Message Boards
    • FTP
chapter 3
Chapter 3
  • Application Software
    • Packaged software
    • Custom software
    • Web application
    • Open source software
    • Shareware
    • Freeware
    • Public-domain software
  • Business Software
    • Word Processing
    • Spreadsheet
    • Database
chapter 31
Chapter 3
  • Business Software
    • Presentation
    • Note Taking
    • Personal Information Manager
    • Business Software for Phones
    • Business Software Suites
    • Project Management
    • Accounting
    • Document Management
    • Enterprise Computing Software
  • Graphics and Multimedia Software
  • Web Applications
chapter 32
Chapter 3
  • Application Software for Communications
    • E-Mail
    • Instant Messaging
    • Chat Room
    • Text, Picture, Video Messaging
    • Blogging
    • Newsgroup/Message Board
    • FTP
    • VoIP
    • Video Conferencing
  • Learning Tools for Application Software
    • Online Help, Web-based training (WBT), Distance learning (DL)
chapter 4
Chapter 4
  • System Unit includes
    • Drive bay(s)
    • Power supply
    • Sound card
    • Video card
    • Processor
    • Memory
  • Motherboard is the main circuit board of the system unit
  • Processor (CPU) contain
    • Control unit
    • Arithmetic logic unit (ALU)
    • Registers
chapter 41
Chapter 4
  • Parallel processing
  • Massively parallel processing  Supercomputers such as artificial intelligence and weather forecasting
  • Binary system (0, 1)
    • 8 bits form a byte
    • A byte represents a single character
    • ASCII vs Unicode
  • Volatile memory  RAM
  • Nonvolatile memory  ROM, flash memory, CMOS
  • Memory cache stores frequently used instructions and data
chapter 42
Chapter 4
  • Expansion slot hold adapter card
  • Ports and Connectors
    • USB port
    • Firewire port
    • Bluetooth port
    • SCSI port
    • eSATA port
    • IrDA port
    • Serial port
    • MIDI port
  • Buses and Bays
chapter 5
Chapter 5
  • Input Device
    • Keyboard  Ergonomic keyboard
  • Pointing Device
    • Mouse
    • Trackball
    • Touchpad
    • Pointing Stick
  • Touch Screen
  • Microsoft Surface
  • Touch-sensitive pads
  • Pen Input
    • Stylus or Digital pen
chapter 51
Chapter 5
  • Game Controllers
    • Gamepads, Joysticks and Wheels, Light guns, Dance pads, Motion-sensing controllers
  • Digital Cameras
    • Studio cameras
    • Field cameras
    • Point-and-shoot camera
  • Voice Input  Voice Recognition
  • Video Input
    • Digital Video Camera  Web cam
    • Video Conference
chapter 52
Chapter 5
  • Scanners
    • Flatbed
    • Pen or Handheld
    • Sheet-fed
    • Drum
  • Optical character recognition (OCR)  Turnaround document
  • Optical mark recognition (OMR)  Answer sheet
  • MICR (magnetic ink character recognition)  Bank Check
  • Barcode reader
  • RFID reader
  • Magnetic stripe card readers
chapter 53
Chapter 5
  • Biometric Input Device
    • Fingerprint reader
    • Face recognition system
    • Hand geometry system
    • Voice verification system
    • Signature verification system
    • Iris recognition system
    • Retinal scanners
chapter 54
Chapter 5
  • Input Devices for Physically Challenged Users
    • Keyguard
    • Keyboards with larger keys
    • On-screen keyboard
    • Various pointing devices
    • Head-mounted pointer
    • Gesture recognition
    • Computerized implant devices
chapter 6
Chapter 6
  • Output Device :
  • Display Devices
    • LCD monitor
    • Plasma monitor
    • CRT monitor
  • Printers
    • Impact printers
      • Dot-matrix printer
      • Line printer
    • Nonimpact printers
      • Ink-jet printers, Photo printers, Laser printers, Thermal printers, Mobile printers, Label and postage printers, Plotters, Large-format printers
chapter 61
Chapter 6
  • Speakers, Headphones, Earbuds
  • Other output devices
    • Data projectors
    • Interactive whiteboards
    • Force-feedback game controllers
    • Tactile output
  • Output Devices for Physically Challenged Users
    • Display word instead of sound  hearing-impaired users
    • Increase text size or change text color  Visually impaired users
    • Voice output, Braille Printers  blind users
chapter 7
Chapter 7
  • Storage Devices:
  • Hard Disks
    • longitudinal recording  aligned the magnetic particles horizontally
    • perpendicular recording  aligned the magnetic particles vertically
  • Characteristics of a hard disk include
    • Capacity
    • Platters
    • Read/Write Heads
    • Cylinders
    • Sectors and Tracks
    • Revolutions per Minute
    • Transfer Rate, Access Time
chapter 71
Chapter 7
  • RAID  group of two or more integrated hard disks
  • A network attached storage (NAS) device
  • External hard disks
  • Removable hard disks
  • Pocket hard drives
  • Several types of hard disk interfaces
    • USB
    • FireWire
    • SATA - (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment)
    • EIDE – (Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics)
    • SCSI – (Small Computer System Interface)
    • SAS – (Serial-attached SCSI)
chapter 72
Chapter 7
  • Flash Memory Storage
    • Solid state drives (SSDs)
    • Memory cards
    • USB flash drives
    • ExpressCard modules
  • Cloud Storage
  • Optical Discs
    • CD-ROM, CD-R, CD-RW
    • DVD-ROM
    • Blu-ray Disc-ROM
  • Other Types of Storage
    • Tape, Magnetic stripe cards and smart cards, Microfilm and microfiche, Enterprise storage
chapter 8
Chapter 8
  • System Software
    • Operating systems
    • Utility programs
  • Operating systems perform similar functions:
    • Start and shut down a computer
    • Provide a user interface
    • Configure devices
  • Cold boot vs Warm boot
  • Boot drive, boot disk, recovery disk
  • Sleep mode  save any open docs/programs to RAM then place the computer in a low-power state
  • Hibernate  save any open docs/programs to a hard disk then remove power from the computer
chapter 81
Chapter 8
  • User Interface
    • Graphical user interface (GUI)
    • Command-line interface
  • Preemptive multitasking  OS interrupts a program that is executing and passes control to another program waiting to be executed
  • Memory management  the use of virtual memory
  • Types of Operating Systems
    • Stand-Alone Operating Systems  Windows 7, Mac OS X, UNIX, Linux
    • Server Operating Systems  Windows Server 2008, UNIX, Linux, Solaris, NetWare
    • Embedded Operating Systems  Windows Phone 7, iPhone OS, Google Android, BlackBerry, Symbian OS
chapter 82
Chapter 8
  • Utility Programs
    • File manager  Windows Explorer
    • Search utility
    • Image viewer  Windows Photo Viewer
    • Uninstaller
    • Disk cleanup utility
    • Disk defragmenter
    • Backup utility
    • Restore utility
    • Screen saver
    • Personal firewall
    • Spyware remover
    • Adware remover
chapter 83
Chapter 8
  • Utility Programs
    • Filters
      • Web filtering software
      • Anti-spam programs
      • Phishing filters
      • Pop-up blockers
    • File compression utility  WinZip, PKZIP
    • Media player  Windows Media Player, iTunes
    • Disc burning software
    • Personal computer maintenance utility
chapter 9
Chapter 9
  • Uses of Computer communications
    • Wireless messaging services
      • Text messaging (SMS)
      • Picture messaging
      • Video messaging
      • Wireless instant messaging
    • Wireless Internet access points
      • Hot spots  Wi-Fi, WiMAX, Bluetooth
      • Mobile wireless networks  3G, 4G
    • Global positioning system (GPS)
    • Groupware
    • Voice mail
chapter 91
Chapter 9
  • Uses of Computer communications
    • Collaborative software  Microsoft Office Live Meeting, Google Wave, WebEX
    • E-mail
    • Document management systems  Google Docs
    • Web services  often used in businesses because departments can communicate with each other, suppliers, vendors, and with clients
      • Communicate by sending XML (Extensible Markup Language) files to web services
chapter 92
Chapter 9
  • Networks
    • Local area network (LAN)
    • Wireless LAN (WLAN)
    • Metropolitan area network (MAN)
    • Wide area network (WAN)
  • Network architecture
    • Client/server network
    • Peer-to-peer network
      • P2P or File sharing network
      • Examples of Networking software that support P2P are BitTorrent, Kazaa, LimeWire
chapter 93
Chapter 9
  • Network topology (layout of computers and devices in communication network)
    • Star Network
    • Bus Network
    • Ring Network
  • Intranet vs Extranet
  • Network standard
    • Ethernet, Token ring, TCP/IP, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, UWB (ultra-wide band), IrDA, RFID, WiMAX, WAP (wireless application protocol)
  • Communications Over Telephone Network
    • Dial-up lines
    • Dedicated line
    • ISDN line (Integrated Services Digital Network)
chapter 94
Chapter 9
  • Communications Over Telephone Network
    • DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)
    • FTTP (Fiber to the premises)
    • T-carrier line
    • ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode)
    • ADSL (Asymmetric digital subscriber line)
  • Communications Devices
    • Dial-up modem
    • DSL modem
    • Cable modem
    • Wireless modem
    • Network card
    • Routers, Hubs, Switches
chapter 95
Chapter 9
  • Communications Channel
    • Latency  For best performance, latency should be low
    • Transmission media
    • Broadband media
  • Physical Transmission Media
    • Twisted-Pair Cable
    • Coaxial Cable
    • Fiber-Optic Cable
  • Wireless Transmission Media
    • Cellular radio
    • Microwaves
    • Communications satellite
chapter 10
Chapter 10
  • Database  collection of data organized for access, retrieval, and use of that data
  • Database software or database management system (DBMS)
  • Data integrity identifies the quality of the data
  • Valuable information should have these characteristics:
    • Accurate
    • Verifiable
    • Timely
    • Organized
    • Accessible
    • Useful
    • Cost-effective
chapter 101
Chapter 10
  • The Hierarchy of Data
    • Organized in layers
    • A field is the smallest unit of data
    • Field name  Student ID, First Name, Last Name
    • Field size  Student ID field contains 6 characters
    • Data type  Text, Numeric, Currency, Date
    • A record is a group of related fields
    • A primary key  a field that uniquely identifies each record
  • Maintaining Data
    • Add, Modify, Delete records
chapter 102
Chapter 10
  • File processing system (disadvantages)
    • Data redundancy
    • Isolated data
    • Database approach (advantages)
    • Reduce data redundancy
    • Improve data integrity
    • Share data
    • Allows easier access
    • Reduces development time
  • Database approach (disadvantages)
    • More vulnerable than data in file processing systems
chapter 103
Chapter 10
  • Database management system (DBMS)
    • Data dictionary
    • A query
      • Query languages, Query by example, forms, report generators
    • Access privileges
    • Techniques to restore the database
      • A backup
      • Log
      • Recovery utility
      • Continuous backup
chapter 104
Chapter 10
  • DBMS is usually based on one data model
    • Relational database
      • Each row has a primary key
      • Each column has a unique name
      • Has relationship between tables
      • use SQL to manage, update, and retrieve data
    • Object-Oriented database
    • Multidimensional database  data warehouse
  • Database Administration
    • Database Analyst (DA) or data modeler
    • Database Administrator (DBA)
chapter 111
Chapter 11
  • Cybercrime  perpetrators are:
    • Hackers
    • Crackers
    • Script Kiddies
    • Corporate Spies
    • Unethical employees
    • Cyberextortionists
    • Cyberterrorists
  • Internet and Network Attacks
    • Computer Virus
    • Worm
    • Trojan Horse
    • Rootkit
chapter 112
Chapter 11
  • The symptoms of infected computers
  • Common way computers become infected is through opening infected e-mail attachments
  • Antivirus program  update virus definition regularly
  • Botnet  a group of compromised computers connected to a network
  • Denial of service attack (DoS attack)
  • Back door
  • Spoofing
  • Firewall and intrusion detection software can protect a network’s resources from intrusion
chapter 113
Chapter 11
  • Unauthorized access and use
    • Access Controls : identification and authentication
    • Usernames and passwords
    • Possessed objects
    • Biometric devices
  • Security measures to reduce hardware theft?
  • Software theft
    • Software piracy
  • Information theft
    • Encryption
    • Digital signature
chapter 114
Chapter 11
  • Security techniques to prevent information theft
    • Digital Certificates
    • Transport Layer Security (TLS)
    • Secure HTTP
    • VPN
  • Factors that lead to system failure
  • Surge protectors and UPS can help protect from system failures caused by electrical power variations
  • Backups
    • Full backup
    • Selective backup
chapter 115
Chapter 11
  • How to improve security of wireless networks?
    • Wireless access point should not broadcast SSID
    • Change default SSID
    • Configure a WAP for certain devices only
    • Use WPA or WPA2 security standard
  • Health Concerns of Computer Use
  • Ethics and Society
    • Information accuracy
    • Intellectual property rights
    • Codes of conduct
    • Green computing
    • Information privacy
chapter 14
Chapter 14
  • Types of enterprises
    • Retail, Manufacturing, Service, Wholesale, Government, Educational, Transportation
  • Four categories of users in an enterprise
    • Executive Management
    • Middle Management
    • Operational Management
    • Nonmanagement Employees
  • Tools and techniques used by managers for decision-making process
    • Business intelligence (BI)
    • Business process management
    • Business process automation
chapter 141
Chapter 14
  • Managers coordinate resources by performing four activities;
    • Planning  Organizing  Leading  Controlling
  • Information Systems in the enterprise
    • Accounting software
    • Billing software
    • Financial software
    • Human resources information system (HRIS)
    • Employee relationship management systems
    • Computer-aided design (CAD)
    • Computer-aided engineering (CAE)
    • Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)
    • Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM)
chapter 142
Chapter 14
  • Information Systems in the enterprise
    • Material Requirements Planning (MRP)
    • Manufacturing Resource Planning II (MRP II)
    • Quality control system
    • Marketing information system
    • Sales force automation (SFA)
    • Distribution systems
    • Customer interaction management (CIM)
chapter 143
Chapter 14
  • General purpose information systems  used by one or more functional units
    • Office Information System
    • Transaction Processing System
    • Management Information System
    • Decision Support System  executive information system
    • Expert System : knowledge base, inference rules
  • Integrated information systems
    • Customer relationship management (CRM) system
    • Enterprise resource planning (ERP) system
    • Content management system (CMS)
chapter 144
Chapter 14
  • Some technologies used in enterprise
    • Portal
    • Data warehouses
    • Electronic data interchange
    • Extranet
    • Web services
    • Document management systems
    • Workflow
    • Virtual private networks
  • Server virtualization and Storage virtualization
  • Cloud computing and Grid computing
chapter 145
Chapter 14
  • Enterprise hardware
    • Redundant array of independent disks (RAID)
    • Network attached storage (NAS)
    • Storage area network (SAN)
    • Blade server
    • Thin client
  • Requirements for enterprise hardware include
    • High availability
    • Scalability
    • Interoperability
  • Backup Procedures
    • Full, differential, incremental, selective, continuous
chapter 146
Chapter 14
  • Disaster recovery plan contains
    • Emergency plan  specifies steps to be taken immediately after a disaster strikes
    • Backup plan  specifies how to resume information processing, should specify location of alternate computer facility
    • Recovery plan  specifies actions to be taken to restore full information processing
    • Test plan  contains information for simulating various levels of disasters (the best is to simulate without advance notice)
programming
Programming
  • Variable name must be unique and self-explanatory
  • Program Design Techniques
    • Pseudo code
      • Statements are written in simple English
      • Each statement is written on a separate line
    • Flowchart
      • Terminal symbol
      • Process symbol
      • Input/output symbol
      • Decision symbol
      • Connector symbol
      • Flowlines
programming1
Programming
  • Programming Control Structures
    • Sequences
    • Selection
      • IF  execute only if the result of condition is true
      • IF-ELSE  execute both true and false
      • Nested IF  when there are IF statements within an IF statement
    • Iteration (Looping)
      • DOWHILE  test condition at the beginning of the loop and terminate if the result is false
      • REPEAT_UNTIL  test condition at the end of the loop and terminate if the result is true
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