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Review Topic for Final. Chapter 1. Five components of a computer Input Device Output Device System Unit Storage Device Communications Device Advantages of using computers Speed Reliability Consistency Storage Communications. Chapter 1. Disadvantages of using computers Health Risks

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Chapter 1
Chapter 1

  • Five components of a computer

    • Input Device

    • Output Device

    • System Unit

    • Storage Device

    • Communications Device

  • Advantages of using computers

    • Speed

    • Reliability

    • Consistency

    • Storage

    • Communications


Chapter 11
Chapter 1

  • Disadvantages of using computers

    • Health Risks

    • Violation of Privacy

    • Public Safety

    • Impact on Labor Force

    • Impact on Environment

  • What is Green computing?

  • Software (Program)

    • System Software

      • Operating System

      • Utility Program

    • Application Software


Chapter 12
Chapter 1

  • Seven categories of computers

    • Personal computers

    • Mobile computers and mobile devices

    • Game consoles

    • Servers

    • Mainframes

    • Supercomputers

    • Embedded computers

  • Elements of an Information System

    • Hardware, Software, Data, People, Procedures


Chapter 2
Chapter 2

  • What is internet addresses?

    • IP address  72.14.207.99

    • Domain name  www.au.edu

  • The World Wide Web (WWW) or Web

    • A Web site contains related web pages

  • A Web browser used to access and view Web pages

    • Internet Explorer, Firefox, Google Chrome, Safari, Opera

  • A URL or Web address

    • http://www.au.edu


Chapter 21
Chapter 2

  • Many different types of Web sites are

    • Portal, News, Informational, Business/Marketing, Blog, Wiki, Online Social Network, Educational, Entertainment, Advocacy, Web Application

  • Multimedia on the Web

    • Graphics, Animation, Audio, Video

  • Five major steps in Web publishing

    • Plan a Web site

    • Analyze and design a Web site

    • Create a Web site

    • Deploy a Web site

    • Maintain a Web site


Chapter 22
Chapter 2

  • Three types of e-commerce

    • Business-to-consumer (B2C)

    • Consumer-to-consumer (C2C)

    • Business-to-business (B2B)

  • Other Internet Services

    • E-mail

    • Mailing Lists

    • Instant Messaging

    • Chat Rooms

    • VoIP

    • Newsgroups and Message Boards

    • FTP


Chapter 3
Chapter 3

  • Application Software

    • Packaged software

    • Custom software

    • Web application

    • Open source software

    • Shareware

    • Freeware

    • Public-domain software

  • Business Software

    • Word Processing

    • Spreadsheet

    • Database


Chapter 31
Chapter 3

  • Business Software

    • Presentation

    • Note Taking

    • Personal Information Manager

    • Business Software for Phones

    • Business Software Suites

    • Project Management

    • Accounting

    • Document Management

    • Enterprise Computing Software

  • Graphics and Multimedia Software

  • Web Applications


Chapter 32
Chapter 3

  • Application Software for Communications

    • E-Mail

    • Instant Messaging

    • Chat Room

    • Text, Picture, Video Messaging

    • Blogging

    • Newsgroup/Message Board

    • FTP

    • VoIP

    • Video Conferencing

  • Learning Tools for Application Software

    • Online Help, Web-based training (WBT), Distance learning (DL)


Chapter 4
Chapter 4

  • System Unit includes

    • Drive bay(s)

    • Power supply

    • Sound card

    • Video card

    • Processor

    • Memory

  • Motherboard is the main circuit board of the system unit

  • Processor (CPU) contain

    • Control unit

    • Arithmetic logic unit (ALU)

    • Registers


Chapter 41
Chapter 4

  • Parallel processing

  • Massively parallel processing  Supercomputers such as artificial intelligence and weather forecasting

  • Binary system (0, 1)

    • 8 bits form a byte

    • A byte represents a single character

    • ASCII vs Unicode

  • Volatile memory  RAM

  • Nonvolatile memory  ROM, flash memory, CMOS

  • Memory cache stores frequently used instructions and data


Chapter 42
Chapter 4

  • Expansion slot hold adapter card

  • Ports and Connectors

    • USB port

    • Firewire port

    • Bluetooth port

    • SCSI port

    • eSATA port

    • IrDA port

    • Serial port

    • MIDI port

  • Buses and Bays


Chapter 5
Chapter 5

  • Input Device

    • Keyboard  Ergonomic keyboard

  • Pointing Device

    • Mouse

    • Trackball

    • Touchpad

    • Pointing Stick

  • Touch Screen

  • Microsoft Surface

  • Touch-sensitive pads

  • Pen Input

    • Stylus or Digital pen


Chapter 51
Chapter 5

  • Game Controllers

    • Gamepads, Joysticks and Wheels, Light guns, Dance pads, Motion-sensing controllers

  • Digital Cameras

    • Studio cameras

    • Field cameras

    • Point-and-shoot camera

  • Voice Input  Voice Recognition

  • Video Input

    • Digital Video Camera  Web cam

    • Video Conference


Chapter 52
Chapter 5

  • Scanners

    • Flatbed

    • Pen or Handheld

    • Sheet-fed

    • Drum

  • Optical character recognition (OCR)  Turnaround document

  • Optical mark recognition (OMR)  Answer sheet

  • MICR (magnetic ink character recognition)  Bank Check

  • Barcode reader

  • RFID reader

  • Magnetic stripe card readers


Chapter 53
Chapter 5

  • Biometric Input Device

    • Fingerprint reader

    • Face recognition system

    • Hand geometry system

    • Voice verification system

    • Signature verification system

    • Iris recognition system

    • Retinal scanners


Chapter 54
Chapter 5

  • Input Devices for Physically Challenged Users

    • Keyguard

    • Keyboards with larger keys

    • On-screen keyboard

    • Various pointing devices

    • Head-mounted pointer

    • Gesture recognition

    • Computerized implant devices


Chapter 6
Chapter 6

  • Output Device :

  • Display Devices

    • LCD monitor

    • Plasma monitor

    • CRT monitor

  • Printers

    • Impact printers

      • Dot-matrix printer

      • Line printer

    • Nonimpact printers

      • Ink-jet printers, Photo printers, Laser printers, Thermal printers, Mobile printers, Label and postage printers, Plotters, Large-format printers


Chapter 61
Chapter 6

  • Speakers, Headphones, Earbuds

  • Other output devices

    • Data projectors

    • Interactive whiteboards

    • Force-feedback game controllers

    • Tactile output

  • Output Devices for Physically Challenged Users

    • Display word instead of sound  hearing-impaired users

    • Increase text size or change text color  Visually impaired users

    • Voice output, Braille Printers  blind users


Chapter 7
Chapter 7

  • Storage Devices:

  • Hard Disks

    • longitudinal recording  aligned the magnetic particles horizontally

    • perpendicular recording  aligned the magnetic particles vertically

  • Characteristics of a hard disk include

    • Capacity

    • Platters

    • Read/Write Heads

    • Cylinders

    • Sectors and Tracks

    • Revolutions per Minute

    • Transfer Rate, Access Time


Chapter 71
Chapter 7

  • RAID  group of two or more integrated hard disks

  • A network attached storage (NAS) device

  • External hard disks

  • Removable hard disks

  • Pocket hard drives

  • Several types of hard disk interfaces

    • USB

    • FireWire

    • SATA - (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment)

    • EIDE – (Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics)

    • SCSI – (Small Computer System Interface)

    • SAS – (Serial-attached SCSI)


Chapter 72
Chapter 7

  • Flash Memory Storage

    • Solid state drives (SSDs)

    • Memory cards

    • USB flash drives

    • ExpressCard modules

  • Cloud Storage

  • Optical Discs

    • CD-ROM, CD-R, CD-RW

    • DVD-ROM

    • Blu-ray Disc-ROM

  • Other Types of Storage

    • Tape, Magnetic stripe cards and smart cards, Microfilm and microfiche, Enterprise storage


Chapter 8
Chapter 8

  • System Software

    • Operating systems

    • Utility programs

  • Operating systems perform similar functions:

    • Start and shut down a computer

    • Provide a user interface

    • Configure devices

  • Cold boot vs Warm boot

  • Boot drive, boot disk, recovery disk

  • Sleep mode  save any open docs/programs to RAM then place the computer in a low-power state

  • Hibernate  save any open docs/programs to a hard disk then remove power from the computer


Chapter 81
Chapter 8

  • User Interface

    • Graphical user interface (GUI)

    • Command-line interface

  • Preemptive multitasking  OS interrupts a program that is executing and passes control to another program waiting to be executed

  • Memory management  the use of virtual memory

  • Types of Operating Systems

    • Stand-Alone Operating Systems  Windows 7, Mac OS X, UNIX, Linux

    • Server Operating Systems  Windows Server 2008, UNIX, Linux, Solaris, NetWare

    • Embedded Operating Systems  Windows Phone 7, iPhone OS, Google Android, BlackBerry, Symbian OS


Chapter 82
Chapter 8

  • Utility Programs

    • File manager  Windows Explorer

    • Search utility

    • Image viewer  Windows Photo Viewer

    • Uninstaller

    • Disk cleanup utility

    • Disk defragmenter

    • Backup utility

    • Restore utility

    • Screen saver

    • Personal firewall

    • Spyware remover

    • Adware remover


Chapter 83
Chapter 8

  • Utility Programs

    • Filters

      • Web filtering software

      • Anti-spam programs

      • Phishing filters

      • Pop-up blockers

    • File compression utility  WinZip, PKZIP

    • Media player  Windows Media Player, iTunes

    • Disc burning software

    • Personal computer maintenance utility


Chapter 9
Chapter 9

  • Uses of Computer communications

    • Wireless messaging services

      • Text messaging (SMS)

      • Picture messaging

      • Video messaging

      • Wireless instant messaging

    • Wireless Internet access points

      • Hot spots  Wi-Fi, WiMAX, Bluetooth

      • Mobile wireless networks  3G, 4G

    • Global positioning system (GPS)

    • Groupware

    • Voice mail


Chapter 91
Chapter 9

  • Uses of Computer communications

    • Collaborative software  Microsoft Office Live Meeting, Google Wave, WebEX

    • E-mail

    • Document management systems  Google Docs

    • Web services  often used in businesses because departments can communicate with each other, suppliers, vendors, and with clients

      • Communicate by sending XML (Extensible Markup Language) files to web services


Chapter 92
Chapter 9

  • Networks

    • Local area network (LAN)

    • Wireless LAN (WLAN)

    • Metropolitan area network (MAN)

    • Wide area network (WAN)

  • Network architecture

    • Client/server network

    • Peer-to-peer network

      • P2P or File sharing network

      • Examples of Networking software that support P2P are BitTorrent, Kazaa, LimeWire


Chapter 93
Chapter 9

  • Network topology (layout of computers and devices in communication network)

    • Star Network

    • Bus Network

    • Ring Network

  • Intranet vs Extranet

  • Network standard

    • Ethernet, Token ring, TCP/IP, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, UWB (ultra-wide band), IrDA, RFID, WiMAX, WAP (wireless application protocol)

  • Communications Over Telephone Network

    • Dial-up lines

    • Dedicated line

    • ISDN line (Integrated Services Digital Network)


Chapter 94
Chapter 9

  • Communications Over Telephone Network

    • DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)

    • FTTP (Fiber to the premises)

    • T-carrier line

    • ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode)

    • ADSL (Asymmetric digital subscriber line)

  • Communications Devices

    • Dial-up modem

    • DSL modem

    • Cable modem

    • Wireless modem

    • Network card

    • Routers, Hubs, Switches


Chapter 95
Chapter 9

  • Communications Channel

    • Latency  For best performance, latency should be low

    • Transmission media

    • Broadband media

  • Physical Transmission Media

    • Twisted-Pair Cable

    • Coaxial Cable

    • Fiber-Optic Cable

  • Wireless Transmission Media

    • Cellular radio

    • Microwaves

    • Communications satellite


Chapter 10
Chapter 10

  • Database  collection of data organized for access, retrieval, and use of that data

  • Database software or database management system (DBMS)

  • Data integrity identifies the quality of the data

  • Valuable information should have these characteristics:

    • Accurate

    • Verifiable

    • Timely

    • Organized

    • Accessible

    • Useful

    • Cost-effective


Chapter 101
Chapter 10

  • The Hierarchy of Data

    • Organized in layers

    • A field is the smallest unit of data

    • Field name  Student ID, First Name, Last Name

    • Field size  Student ID field contains 6 characters

    • Data type  Text, Numeric, Currency, Date

    • A record is a group of related fields

    • A primary key  a field that uniquely identifies each record

  • Maintaining Data

    • Add, Modify, Delete records


Chapter 102
Chapter 10

  • File processing system (disadvantages)

    • Data redundancy

    • Isolated data

    • Database approach (advantages)

    • Reduce data redundancy

    • Improve data integrity

    • Share data

    • Allows easier access

    • Reduces development time

  • Database approach (disadvantages)

    • More vulnerable than data in file processing systems


Chapter 103
Chapter 10

  • Database management system (DBMS)

    • Data dictionary

    • A query

      • Query languages, Query by example, forms, report generators

    • Access privileges

    • Techniques to restore the database

      • A backup

      • Log

      • Recovery utility

      • Continuous backup


Chapter 104
Chapter 10

  • DBMS is usually based on one data model

    • Relational database

      • Each row has a primary key

      • Each column has a unique name

      • Has relationship between tables

      • use SQL to manage, update, and retrieve data

    • Object-Oriented database

    • Multidimensional database  data warehouse

  • Database Administration

    • Database Analyst (DA) or data modeler

    • Database Administrator (DBA)


Chapter 111
Chapter 11

  • Cybercrime  perpetrators are:

    • Hackers

    • Crackers

    • Script Kiddies

    • Corporate Spies

    • Unethical employees

    • Cyberextortionists

    • Cyberterrorists

  • Internet and Network Attacks

    • Computer Virus

    • Worm

    • Trojan Horse

    • Rootkit


Chapter 112
Chapter 11

  • The symptoms of infected computers

  • Common way computers become infected is through opening infected e-mail attachments

  • Antivirus program  update virus definition regularly

  • Botnet  a group of compromised computers connected to a network

  • Denial of service attack (DoS attack)

  • Back door

  • Spoofing

  • Firewall and intrusion detection software can protect a network’s resources from intrusion


Chapter 113
Chapter 11

  • Unauthorized access and use

    • Access Controls : identification and authentication

    • Usernames and passwords

    • Possessed objects

    • Biometric devices

  • Security measures to reduce hardware theft?

  • Software theft

    • Software piracy

  • Information theft

    • Encryption

    • Digital signature


Chapter 114
Chapter 11

  • Security techniques to prevent information theft

    • Digital Certificates

    • Transport Layer Security (TLS)

    • Secure HTTP

    • VPN

  • Factors that lead to system failure

  • Surge protectors and UPS can help protect from system failures caused by electrical power variations

  • Backups

    • Full backup

    • Selective backup


Chapter 115
Chapter 11

  • How to improve security of wireless networks?

    • Wireless access point should not broadcast SSID

    • Change default SSID

    • Configure a WAP for certain devices only

    • Use WPA or WPA2 security standard

  • Health Concerns of Computer Use

  • Ethics and Society

    • Information accuracy

    • Intellectual property rights

    • Codes of conduct

    • Green computing

    • Information privacy


Chapter 14
Chapter 14

  • Types of enterprises

    • Retail, Manufacturing, Service, Wholesale, Government, Educational, Transportation

  • Four categories of users in an enterprise

    • Executive Management

    • Middle Management

    • Operational Management

    • Nonmanagement Employees

  • Tools and techniques used by managers for decision-making process

    • Business intelligence (BI)

    • Business process management

    • Business process automation


Chapter 141
Chapter 14

  • Managers coordinate resources by performing four activities;

    • Planning  Organizing  Leading  Controlling

  • Information Systems in the enterprise

    • Accounting software

    • Billing software

    • Financial software

    • Human resources information system (HRIS)

    • Employee relationship management systems

    • Computer-aided design (CAD)

    • Computer-aided engineering (CAE)

    • Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)

    • Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM)


Chapter 142
Chapter 14

  • Information Systems in the enterprise

    • Material Requirements Planning (MRP)

    • Manufacturing Resource Planning II (MRP II)

    • Quality control system

    • Marketing information system

    • Sales force automation (SFA)

    • Distribution systems

    • Customer interaction management (CIM)


Chapter 143
Chapter 14

  • General purpose information systems  used by one or more functional units

    • Office Information System

    • Transaction Processing System

    • Management Information System

    • Decision Support System  executive information system

    • Expert System : knowledge base, inference rules

  • Integrated information systems

    • Customer relationship management (CRM) system

    • Enterprise resource planning (ERP) system

    • Content management system (CMS)


Chapter 144
Chapter 14

  • Some technologies used in enterprise

    • Portal

    • Data warehouses

    • Electronic data interchange

    • Extranet

    • Web services

    • Document management systems

    • Workflow

    • Virtual private networks

  • Server virtualization and Storage virtualization

  • Cloud computing and Grid computing


Chapter 145
Chapter 14

  • Enterprise hardware

    • Redundant array of independent disks (RAID)

    • Network attached storage (NAS)

    • Storage area network (SAN)

    • Blade server

    • Thin client

  • Requirements for enterprise hardware include

    • High availability

    • Scalability

    • Interoperability

  • Backup Procedures

    • Full, differential, incremental, selective, continuous


Chapter 146
Chapter 14

  • Disaster recovery plan contains

    • Emergency plan  specifies steps to be taken immediately after a disaster strikes

    • Backup plan  specifies how to resume information processing, should specify location of alternate computer facility

    • Recovery plan  specifies actions to be taken to restore full information processing

    • Test plan  contains information for simulating various levels of disasters (the best is to simulate without advance notice)


Programming
Programming

  • Variable name must be unique and self-explanatory

  • Program Design Techniques

    • Pseudo code

      • Statements are written in simple English

      • Each statement is written on a separate line

    • Flowchart

      • Terminal symbol

      • Process symbol

      • Input/output symbol

      • Decision symbol

      • Connector symbol

      • Flowlines


Programming1
Programming

  • Programming Control Structures

    • Sequences

    • Selection

      • IF  execute only if the result of condition is true

      • IF-ELSE  execute both true and false

      • Nested IF  when there are IF statements within an IF statement

    • Iteration (Looping)

      • DOWHILE  test condition at the beginning of the loop and terminate if the result is false

      • REPEAT_UNTIL  test condition at the end of the loop and terminate if the result is true



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