Petroleum engineering
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石 油 工 程 (Petroleum Engineering). 林再興 ( 研究室 4328B) 2009 年 9 月 ~ 2010 年 1 月. Chapter 1 Introduction ( 前言 ). What is pe·tro·le·um (pə-trō ' lē-əm)? Oil from rock Petroleum may be in gaseous, liquid, and solid hydrocarbons that occurs naturally beneath the earth's surface.

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Petroleum engineering

石 油 工 程(Petroleum Engineering)

林再興

(研究室 4328B)

2009 年 9月 ~ 2010 年 1月


Chapter 1 introduction

Chapter 1 Introduction (前言)

What is pe·tro·le·um (pə-trō'lē-əm)?

  • Oil from rock

  • Petroleum may be in gaseous, liquid, and solid hydrocarbons that occurs naturally beneath the earth's surface.

  • Oil being a thick, flammable, yellow-to-black hydrocarbons mixture.

  • Could be separated into fractions including natural gas, gasoline, naphtha(揮發油), kerosene(煤油), fuel and lubricating oils, paraffin wax(石臘), and asphalt(瀝青) and is used as raw material for a wide variety of derivative products.


Petroleum engineering

石油的分子結構

石油是碳氫化合物。

碳-- C,氫-- H。

烷烴 (石蠟烴)、環烷烴、烯烴及芳香烴,其分子結構均不相同。

甲烷即是含有一個碳原子,乙烷含兩個碳原子,丙烷含三個碳原子,依此類推。

烯烴類有一組雙鍵結構 (請比較異丁烷與異丁烯),

芳香烴為六隅體結構等。


Petroleum and energy

Petroleum(石油) and Energy(能源)

  • 能源 (Energy Sources)是什麼?

    具有可以使用之熱能(heat) 或功率(power)的物質或資源。

    例如,石油、煤,及太陽能等。


Petroleum engineering

能源的分類

  • 傳統能源或非再生能源(Non-renewable Energy)

    這類資源的循環時間極長 – 用完之後,難以在短 期內補

    充,會”耗盡”。

    包括:石油、天然氣、煤及核能。

  • 再生能源(Renewable Energy)

    資源可以快速循環或補充 – “不會用完”,”不會枯竭耗” ,

    包括:太陽能、風力能、潮汐能、水力能、波浪能、

    地熱 能及生質能等。


Non renewable energy

傳統能源 (Non-renewable Energy)

  • 化石燃料能(Fossil Fuel Energy)

    -石油、天然氣、煤炭

  • 核能(Nuclear Energy)

    -鈾(Uranium)


Renewable energy

再生能源(Renewable Energy)種類

  • 太陽能(Solar Power)

  • 風力能(Wind Power)


Renewable energy1

再生能源(Renewable Energy)種類

  • 潮汐能(Tidal Power)


Renewable energy2

再生能源(Renewable Energy)種類

  • 水力能(Hydro-electric Power)

  • 波浪能(Wave Power)


Renewable energy3

再生能源(Renewable Energy)種類

  • 地熱能(Geothermal Energy) 生質能(Biomass Energy)


Petroleum engineering

人類如何使用能源?


Petroleum engineering

世界消費能源總量之中各類能源所佔比例

Source: EIA, Annual Energy Review, 2002


Petroleum engineering

^BP Statistical review of world energy June 2006 (XLS). British Petroleum (June 2006). Retrieved on 2007-04-03.

^ abcdefghijk


Petroleum engineering

石油能源

  • 石油及天然氣是動、植物之殘骸在地層中,於適當地層溫度及壓力條件下所分解之碳氫化合物而形成。

  • 1970年代的二次全球能源危機是

    因石油供應短缺所造成,

    又稱為石油能源危機。

  • 1990年代波斯灣戰爭也是

    因為石油而引起。

  • 2008 oil price up to 150 USD/bbl

  • 石油價格的升降,直接影響全球經濟。

  • 預測石油短缺即將來臨︰四十年?


Petroleum engineering

天然氣能源

  • 天然氣是一種氣態的碳氫化合物

    (註:石油是液態碳氫化合物)。

  • 天然氣的燃燒效率高,而且乾淨。

  • 液化天然氣 (簡稱 LNG) 是把礦區產出的天然氣冷凍至零下 162°C,成為一種無色、無臭的液體,體積也縮減為氣態時的六百分之一左右,以便於儲存及越洋運送。


Petroleum engineering

石油分類

  • 物理性質

    -- relative weight (API gravity) ; viscosity

    -- "light", "intermediate" or "heavy"

    -- impurity

    --"sweet," which means it contains relatively little sulfur, or

    -- "sour," which means it contains substantial amounts of sulfur and requires more refining in order to meet current product specifications

  • 化學性質

    石油的分子結構

  • 產地

    by the location of its origin

    (e.g., "West Texas Intermediate, WTI" or "Brent")

  • 市場商品

    產地(&物理性質)


Petroleum engineering

API Gravity

API <=> American Petroleum Institute

API = 10o (SG=1) => water

API < 20o(SG>0.96) => heavy oil

30o < API < 40o(0.89>SG>0.84)

=> intermediate oil (light to medium)

40o < API (SG<0.84) => light oil

API > 45o(SG<0.84) => volatile oil

API ~ 60o ~ 70o(0.76-0.72) => condensate liquid


The world reference crude oil

The world reference Crude (oil)

  • Brent Crude, comprising 15 oils from fields in the Brent and Ninian systems in the East Shetland Basin of the North Sea. The oil is landed at Sullom Voe terminal in the Shetlands. Oil production from Europe, Africa and Middle Eastern oil flowing West tends to be priced off the price of this oil, which forms a benchmark.

  • West Texas Intermediate (WTI) for North American oil.

  • Dubai, used as benchmark for Middle East oil flowing to the Asia-Pacific region.

  • Tapis (from Malaysia, used as a reference for light Far East oil)

  • Minas (from Indonesia, used as a reference for heavy Far East oil)

  • The OPEC basket used to be the average price of the following blends:

    • Arab Light Saudi Arabia

    • Bonny LightNigeria

    • Fateh Dubai

    • IsthmusMexico (non-OPEC)

    • Minas Indonesia

    • Saharan Blend Algeria

    • Tia Juana Light Venezuela

  • OPEC attempts to keep the price of the Opec Basket between upper and lower limits, by increasing and decreasing production. This makes the measure important for market analysts.


What is a barrel of oil

What is a "barrel" of oil?

  • 1 barrel = 0.158987 cubic meters1 barrel = 34.99089 Imperial gallons1 barrel = 42 U.S. gallons1 barrel = 158.987146 liters

  • Now-a-days, oil volumes are measured in cubic meters or "cubes" as they are referred to in the "oil patch"

  • 1 cubic meter = 6.28994 barrels1 cubic meter = 1,000 liters

  • 1 barrel = 158.987146 liters

  • Brent Crude is one of the major classifications of oil consisting of Brent Crude, Brent Sweet Light Crude ... per barrel is about $3 less than WTI, and $3 more than OPEC Basket. Brent Crude has an API gravity of around 38. ...


Chart of crude oil prices since 1861

Chart of crude oil prices since 1861

Crude oil prices 1861 - 2008

US dollar per barrel

World events


Chart of rotterdam gulf coast product prices

Chart of Rotterdam & Gulf Coast product prices

Rotterdam product prices

US dollar per barrel

US Gulf Coast production prices

US dollar per barrel

Source: Platts


Proved oil reserves

Proved oil reserves

Proved reserves at end 2008

Thousand million barrels


Distribution of proved oil reserves

Distribution of proved oil reserves

Distribution of proved oil reserves in 1988, 1998 and 2008

Percentage


Petroleum engineering

SEPTEMBER 17, 2009


Petroleum engineering

Crude Oil, Gasoline and Natural Gas FuturesNYMEX Prices for September 15, 2008

Graphs: Oil & Gas Spot and Futures prices


Petroleum engineering

Crude Oil, Gasoline and Natural Gas FuturesNYMEX Prices for September 18, 2007


Major fields in petroleum engineering

Major fields in Petroleum Engineering

  • Drilling Engineering

  • Production Engineering

  • Reservoir Engineering


Major topics covered in this course petroleum engineering

Major topics covered in this course (petroleum engineering)

  • Petroleum geology and reservoir

  • Petroleum Prospecting

  • Drilling engineering

  • Reservoir engineering

  • Formation evaluation

  • Production engineering


References

References

Textbook 2– chapter 1

Textbook 2

Archer, J. S., and Wall, C.G., Petroleum

Engineering—principles and practice, Graham

& Trotman, MD, 1986.

Textbook 4– chapter 1

Textbook 4

Hyne,N.J., Petroleum Geology, Exploration,

Drilling and Production, Penn Well Co., Tulsa,

Oklahoma, 2001.


What is petroleum engineering

What is Petroleum Engineering

  • Petroleum Engineering is a creative technology

  • The function of petroleum engineering

    • to provide a basis for the design and implementation of techniques to recover commercial quantities of natural petroleum.

  • Broadly based technology of petroleum engineering

    • Engineering; geology; mathematics; physics; chemistry; economics; geostatics.


Petroleum engineering

The design of petroleum techniques

  • The design of petroleum techniques is based on

    • observation of production performance,

    • a representation of reservoir inferred from very limited sampling.

  • With the passage of time and cumulative production, more information on the nature of the reservoir can be accumulated and the production methods can modified.


Petroleum engineering

Uncertainty of Design

  • Thus petroleum engineering can represent an exercise in the application of uncertainty to design.

  • The terminology of the subject contains varying degrees of confidence in representation of the in-place and recoverable resource base.

  • We will discuss the representation of “proven” quantities of hydrocarbon in terms of availability of information and the existence of technology to exploit recovery on commercially attractive terms.


Petroleum engineering

Costs of production

  • In the current climate of deeper reservoir exploration and increased exploitation of offshore reservoirs in the world’s sedimentary basins (Fig. 1.1), costs of production are significant.

    For example, in terms of pre-tax cost of oil production from a 2000 m ss onshore well compared with a 3000 m ss offshore well, a ratio of 1:10 might be expected.

  • Current exploration in maturing hydrocarbon provinces is centered on more subtle trapping mechanisms than structural highs and on smaller accumulations.


Petroleum engineering

Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and

Improved Hydrocarbon Recovery (IHR)

  • The further recovery of hydrocarbons from reservoirs approaching the end of conventional development process requires the cost-effective application of enhanced (EOR) or improved hydrocarbon recovery (IHR) process.

  • The exploitation of heavy oil (API gravity less than 20o API) and of gas condensate and volatile oil reservoirs (API gravity greater than 45o API) requires special petroleum engineering effort, particularly in high-pressure or offshore reservoirs.


Petroleum engineering

  • Developments in the recovery of hydrocarbon from oil sands and oil shales require that petroleum engineering methods are combined with the technologies of mining engineers and chemical engineers.


Text books

Text Books

  • Textbook 1

    Fundamentals of Petroleum, Petroleum Extension Service, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas,1979.

  • Textbook 2

    Archer, J. S., and Wall, C.G., Petroleum Engineering—principles and practice, Graham & Trotman, MD, 1986.

  • TextBook 3

    Donohue, D.A.T., and Lang K.R., Petroleum Technology, International Human Resources Development Corporation, Houston,1986.

  • Textbook 4

    Hyne,N.J., Petroleum Geology, Exploration, Drilling and Production, Penn Well Co., Tulsa, Oklahoma, 2001.

  • Textbook 5

    Devereux, S., Drilling Technology, Penn Well Co., Tulsa, Oklahoma, 1999.


Text books1

Text Books

  • 林國安等人,石油探採 (第一冊) – 石油地質,,中國石油股份有限公司訓練教材叢書,中油訓練所,嘉義市, 2003。

  • 林國安等人,石油探採 (第二冊) – 地球物理探勘,,中國石油股份有限公司訓練教材叢書,中油訓練所,嘉義市, 2003 。

  • 林國安等人,石油探採 (第三冊)– 油井鑽鑿,中國石油股份有限公司訓練教材叢書,中油訓練所,嘉義市, 2003 。

  • 林國安等人,石油探採 (第四冊) – 油氣生產,中國石油股份有限公司訓練教材叢書,中油訓練所,嘉義市, 2003 。


Petroleum engineering

石油工程 講授大綱

1. 前言 (Introduction)

Textbook 2– chapter 1

Textbook 4– chapter 1

2. 石油地質及儲油層 (Petroleum Geology and Reservoir)

Textbook 1– chapter 1

Textbook 2– chapter 2

Textbook 3– chapter 4.1; 4.2

3.石油探勘 (Petroleum Prospecting)

Textbook 1– chapter 2

SPE Energy Education

4.鑽井工程 (Drilling Engineering)

Textbook 1– chapter 4

Textbook 2– chapter 3 SPE Energy Education

Textbook 3– chapter 1


Petroleum engineering

石油工程 講授大綱

5.地層評估 (Formation Evaluation)

Textbook 4– chapter 19

6.油層工程 (Reservoir Engineering)

Textbook 2– chapter 4; 5; 8; 12

7.生產工程 (Production Engineering)

Textbook 1– chapter 5

Textbook 3– chapter 3

SPE Energy Education


References1

References

  • Web sites

    石油教室 Classroom

    (http://www.cpc.com.tw/big5/content/index.asp?pno=108)

    ???SPE Energy Education (Introduction to Oil and Natural Gas)???

    ???(http://www.spe.org/spe/jsp/basic/0,,1104_1008218,00.html)???

    石油工程實驗室

    (http://www.ncku.edu.tw/~source/home/teacher_lin_personal.htm)


Petroleum engineering

石油教室 Classroom

(http://www.cpc.com.tw/big5/content/index.asp?pno=108)


Petroleum engineering

SPE Energy Education (Introduction to Oil and Natural Gas) (http://www.spe.org/spe/jsp/basic/0,,1104_1008218,00.html)


Petroleum engineering

石油工程實驗室(http://www.ncku.edu.tw/~source/home/teacher_lin_personal.htm)


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