Howse from politics to technocracy and back again mattoo from doha to the next bretton woods
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Howse, “From Politics to Technocracy – and Back Again” Mattoo, “From Doha to the Next Bretton Woods”. Trading Regimes. From GATT (1947) to WTO (1995) ‏. Basic principle: generalized reciprocity (MFN) ‏ Focus on manufactured goods vs. new areas (services, agriculture, intellectual property…) ‏

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Trading Regimes

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Howse from politics to technocracy and back again mattoo from doha to the next bretton woods

Howse, “From Politics to Technocracy – and Back Again”

Mattoo, “From Doha to the Next Bretton Woods”

Trading Regimes


From gatt 1947 to wto 1995
From GATT (1947) to WTO (1995)

Basic principle: generalized reciprocity (MFN)‏

Focus on manufactured goods vs. new areas (services, agriculture, intellectual property…)‏

Weak institutionalization vs. real IO

Weak trade dispute mechanism vs. binding arbitration

Growing membership


Embedded liberalism vs technocracy howse
“Embedded liberalism” vs. “technocracy” (Howse)

Embedded liberalism: efforts to reduce trade restrictions embedded in the values and institutions of the welfare state

Technocracy: pragmatic pursuit of efficiency (“creative destruction”)

Politics: balancing of conflicting values

Policy prescriptions: back to GATT; global civil society; WTO-WB-IMF-ILO commission


Controversial issues within the wto doha round
Controversial issues within the WTO (Doha round)

Labor and environmental standards

Agricultural subsidies

Investment regime

Intellectual property rights


New trade agenda
New trade agenda?

  • Doha round (focused on relatively trivial issues) – sidelined by bilateral and regional agreements

  • Need to target international cartels

  • Need for cooperation between the IMF and WTO

    - to correct the undervaluation of major currencies and regulate SWFs

  • Major imbalances?

  • Need to cooperate on climate change without the threat of trade sanctions – transfer of finance and know-how


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